Biochemical interactions in the body – function, task & diseases

Biochemical interactions in the body

The biochemical interactions in the organism represent the basis of life. Basically, this process takes place in the body, which are associated with energy intake and energy release. Disruptions in biochemical interactions are expressed in diseases.

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What are biochemical interactions in the body?

The biochemical interactions in the body are explained by the science of biochemistry. It deals with the interaction of chemical and biological processes in the body. Metabolism closely interlinks biological and chemical processes. In medicine, the metabolic processes are investigated in order to recognize and treat disorders of these processes. The treatment of these diseases can then often be successful by the supply of certain drugs from the outside. These can be drugs or missing active ingredients such as vitamins.

For successful treatment, however, it is necessary to know the chemical processes exactly. Among other things, biochemistry deals with the construction of biological structures, molecular building blocks and their interactions with each other. It examines how the substances are converted and what conditions, enzymes or hormones are necessary in the course of the various processes.

At the same time, biochemistry also examines how the exchange of information takes place inside and outside the organism and what paths are available for the storage, retrieval and transmission of information.

function & task

Animal organisms, including humans, feed on already-built organic matter. On the one hand, they build up endogenous connections and, on the other hand, use these substances to generate energy for the physiological processes.

In principle, proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids play an essential role for every organism. Proteins are polypeptides made up of about 20 different proteinogenic alpha-amino acids. They fulfill many different functions in the organism. So they are involved in building the muscles and all internal organs. They occur as immunoglobulins for the formation of antibodies.

All enzymes are proteins. As enzymes, they catalyze the formation of important biochemicals that are essential to the organism. In part, they also act as hormones that produce certain biochemical effects. The different properties and functions of the proteins (proteins) in turn result from the order of the amino acids present in the peptide chain. The replacement of an amino acid can make the protein molecule ineffective or give it a completely different effect.

Responsible for the formation of proteins are the so-called nucleic acids in DNA and RNA. The DNA stores the genetic code. This determines which proteins are produced and how they work. In addition to the proteins and nucleic acids, every organism also needs carbohydrates and fats. While the proteins are responsible for the body’s constitution and functions, carbohydrates and fats provide the necessary energy for bodily processes.

The basic building blocks of these biological agents are closely interlinked by the biochemical cycles. Thus, the citric acid cycle (citric acid cycle) plays a major role in the oxidative degradation of organic compounds for energy production. Within this cycle, however, the basic building blocks of carbohydrates, fats and proteins can be interconverted.

One or more enzymes are necessary for almost every reaction step in the organism. Furthermore, the hormone system provides a superior regulatory mechanism to coordinate bodily functions. The information transfer within the cells, between the cells and especially between the nerve cells is closely linked to all other biochemical processes.

The processes are well coordinated and condition each other. This good coordination of events has evolved in the course of evolution. If that were not the case, the organisms could not survive or even develop.

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Diseases & complaints

Since enzymes are necessary for each reaction step in the conversion of the substances, even a defective enzyme can lead to significant pathological processes. Faulty enzymes are produced by gene mutations, whereby often only one amino acid is exchanged.

An example is phenylketonuria. Here is the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of the amino acid phenylalanine by a gene mutation in its action. The accumulation of phenylalanine in the brain causes severe mental damage if left untreated. A diet low in phenylalanine can save the adolescent from this disease.

Many other substances are essential for the body. That means they have to be fed with food. This applies to vitamins, minerals or even some amino acids. If they are missing in the diet, deficiencies often occur, which are often associated with serious illnesses such as vitamin C deficiency scurvy.

Another typical example of acquired metabolic disorders is the metabolic syndrome with obesity, diabetes mellitus, lipid metabolism disorders and arteriosclerosis. The cause for this is a year-long wrong diet with too many carbohydrates and fats, which is not workable in the biological blueprint of man.

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Christina Cherry
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