Bruises on the legs (contusions or ecchymoses) are injuries to the tissue under the skin.
This usually happens when a person is hit or hit hard.
The skin surface remains intact and shows no signs of injury.
Blood emerges from the torn blood vessels, but remains trapped under the skin.
Later, the trapped blood becomes a purple or red patch under the skin that is visible from the outside.
This is a bruise that hurts when touched..
It doesn’t always stay that way, the color changes over the course of the days.
Blue spots can also form under the nails, in this case one speaks of a subungual hematoma.
The color of the fabric under the nail is black.
Predisposed people can get bruises after an insect bite, for example from a mosquito.
Causes of bruises on the legs
When capillaries (or small blood vessels) tear, a small amount of blood collects under the skin, which can lead to unexplained bruises.
Causes of bruises on the legs are:
Platelets are used to close injured blood vessels and for hemostasis.
A very low number of platelets favors the formation of large bruises (it is advisable to have a blood test to rule out such a disorder).
There are many factors that can cause this disease.
Low platelets can be caused by:
- Insufficient bone marrow production, for example in aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, metastases and bone marrow granulomas,
- Accelerated destruction, may be caused by: thrombotic microangiopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
- Milzsequestration. The sequestration of platelets in the spleen can be caused by:
- Portal hypertension (the portal vein), which can be the result of heart failure, thrombosis of the hepatic vein or the vena cava (Budd-Chiari syndrome),
- cirrhosis – caused by chronic viral hepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis,
- Arteriovenous malformation of the splenic vessels (rare) – (Pooling of platelets in the spleen: role in the pathogenesis of “hypersplenic” thrombocytopenia – Aster RH – J Clin Invest. 1966 May; 45 (5): 645-57).
One can observe the formation of red spots on the legs.
The liver creates Coagulation factors, these are proteins that serve to occlude blood vessel injuries.
If the liver does not work properly, bruising or bleeding is easy.
Von Willebrand’s disease
Von Willebrand disease is a very rare genetic disorder that can cause bruises without cause.
The blood does not coagulate properly and the person affected can develop massive bleeding in the nose and gums, for example. In addition, these people are predestined to get inexplicable bruises and hematomas.
In some cases, the symptoms are mild and the disease goes unnoticed. Desmopressin is used as a medication to treat Von Willebrand disease.
Another cause can be the purpura.
In this condition, the blood vessels tend to burst and cause mild ecchymosis on the legs.
There are various forms of purpura, including:
- The Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, it is related to the action of a drug or a virus,
- The thrombocytopenic or idiopathic purpura – The mechanism of platelet destruction is always immunological, there is no viral or autoimmune disease or any drug that attacks the platelets.
A virus or drug can change the antigens on the surface of the platelet.
The organism cannot recognize the changed platelet and therefore produces antibodies against it.
The result is that the immune system destroys these blood cells.
This disease most often occurs in women.
Acanthosis nigricans is a disease that leads to brown or black spots on the skin, especially in the folds of the joints of:
It is a thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis caused by an excessive production of epidermal growth factor (EGF).
If the doctor has not diagnosed diabetes, other signs need to be considered, including:
- Strong thirst,
- Frequent urination,
- Common infections,
- blurred vision,
In these cases, it is recommended to have a blood test for diabetes.
According to the Blood Type Diet is the cause of the capillary fragility and thus the bruises in the diet, which contains:
For example, the cause of varicose veins can be found in mature types of fat cheese.
According to this theory, milk and milk products are not suitable for the body and lead to a negative reaction of the immune system.
Other causes of bruising
© Massimo Defilippo
Medications such as aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen) and some antibiotics can increase the likelihood of unexplained hematomas.
Some of these diseases that cause bruises without cause are:
- Hodgkin’s disease
- Diseases of the connective tissue like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome and lupus.
- Hemophilia and Von Willebrand disease: it refers to Diseases, where the blood doesn’t clot normally.
- Leukemia and multiple myeloma: these are blood cancers. With leukemia, there are immature blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and then in the blood. These immature cells form a mass that hinders the production of mature and functioning blood cells: platelets, white and red blood cells. The consequence is the easy formation of bruises.
- cirrhosis: This condition reduces the liver’s ability to produce the proteins that regulate blood clotting.
- Acute pancreatitis: This disease causes a sudden inflammation of the pancreas, which can lead to the formation of many hematomas in the abdominal area.
- sepsis: This is a diffuse inflammation of the blood.
Some young women observe bruises after training in the Fitness Studio.
The cause can be a trauma during fit or Thai boxing, but in many cases the hematoma just appears like this and without an abrupt or violent movement.
For newborns and young children, those who are not yet speaking cannot rule out violence as the cause of the hematoma.
A surgery always causes bluish discolouration or hematoma.
A simple procedure, such as varicose vein obliteration or liposuction, can also cause hematomas.
Intramuscular injections, that occur in the gluteus muscle can cause round, small hematomas.
Causes bruises that don’t go away
Blue spots that do not go away can be the result of:
Taking of drugs for anticoagulation or which impair the ability to clot, such as:
- Chemotherapy drugs (such as hydroxyurodide or methotrexate),
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories.
Lack of vitamin C and zinc, necessary for collagen production and wound healing.
With poor blood flow, the cells and substances needed to reach the lesions take more time to get to the bruise.
The causes of circulatory disorders include:
- varicose veins,
- venous insufficiency,
- Raynaud’s disease.
Swollen legs and arms – due to fluid accumulation:
- The pressure is increased in the tissues,
- The blood vessels become rigid,
This limits the blood flow.
Infections can almost stop the wound healing process. According to the St. Lukas Klinik, an infection hinders the regeneration of healthy tissue, for example it increases the duration of inflammation.
There are also bacterial strains that disrupt the coagulation mechanisms and can therefore promote bleeding. According to a 2010 study by Journal of Dental Research are the two most harmful strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus.
Bruises on the legs
© Massimo Defilippo
Causes bruises on the leg with no apparent cause
One of the causes can be diabetes.
Inexplicable bruises occur more often in women than in men, because they have more often:
- Circulation problems,
- Water retention (legs and ankles swollen).
Women often complain of stains all over their legs, thighs, buttocks and arms.
Women with a venous weakness or significant water retention can get bruises due to a massage, because this leads to the tearing of capillaries.
You can also click on one Lack of vitamin C (as this increases the fragility of the capillaries), vitamin B12, folic acid and vitamin K..
In order to avoid a vitamin deficiency, especially in children, one must pay attention to the diet.
Oral or intravenous corticosteroids can cause capillaries to become fragile, making the person susceptible to spontaneous bruising.
Symptoms of bruises on the body
The symptoms are expressed in a reddish-purple zone, as if there were tiny red spots or spots on the skin.
The bleeding under the skin leads to one bluish, reddish or purple in color, the one over time green or yellow color takes.
Blue spots often hurt during the first few days, but should turn yellow or green they don’t be more painful.
Blood accumulations tend to become due to gravity to shift 10-20 cm down in a week.
For example, trauma to the eye (also called "violet") can form a hematoma in the area of the zygomatic bone after a few days.
When do you have to worry about bruises on the legs?
If bruises form everywhere, especially at night without previous beating or trauma, you should see a doctor, as the cause can be a serious illness.
Frequent bruising on the legs
The formation of frequent ecchymoses on the legs can be observed as a side effect of medication or due to some underlying illness.
Often you can see ecchymoses in children who play and are active all day.
Red or bluish spots develop on the skin when they bump into something.
The cause is obviously a contusion, i.e. injuries to the soft tissue and the small blood vessels under the skin.
Even if bruises can occur on all parts of the body, arms and legs are more predisposed to it.
Causes mild leg hematoma
According to the experts, bruises on the legs and arms are more common the older the person is.
In children and adolescents, this problem may be due to an underlying medical condition.
These people are predisposed to develop bruises with no apparent cause.
- They can also result from blood clotting disorders.
- Medicines containing cortisone and some food integrators (ginkgo and fish oil).
- People who take anticoagulant medication can also often get bruises.
- Older people often suffer from the fragility of the capillaries and the small blood vessels tear even in the event of minor collisions.
Natural remedy for bruises on the legs
Pharmaceuticals used for bruises must not get into the area of the eyes, mouth and nose.
It is also important:
- Do not drain the bruise by cutting your skin,
- Avoid intense physical activity so as not to aggravate the hematoma.
Here are some therapies that can be done at home to reduce bruises on the face and other parts of the body:
ice: One of the simplest and most effective ways against The ice pack is bruised, but only in the first 24 hours after the trauma.
Wrap the ice pack in a towel.
Place this envelope on the bruised area every hour for 15 minutes to reduce the hematoma. This helps to reduce swelling and relieve pain.
Warm envelopes: Like ice packs, warm packs can also be tried to reduce the hematoma.
The warm compress is applied to the affected area to reduce pain.
It should be noted that cold compresses are good for sprains, swellings, or recent bruises.
On the other hand, hot compresses are used to treat a subacute injury (after the first two days).
drugs: Do not take painkillers like aspirin or warfarin. Paracetamol, on the other hand, is better suited to relieve pain (Efferalgan).
This medication can be obtained without a prescription, it helps with skin hematomas.
Vitamins or other integrators can increase the likelihood of bruising. So it is better to speak to the doctor before taking supplements.
arnica: Arnica is a natural medication used to treat bruises and can be purchased over the counter.
For dark and swollen hematomas, arnica gel should be applied to the affected area every 3 hours.
- Helps reduce bruising or swelling,
- Brightens the blue discoloration.
However, if redness or itching occurs after the first use, it means that the skin is allergic to arnica. The application should then be stopped.
Eat healthy foods: Eat foods that are rich in vitamin C and vitamin K, since vitamin C prevents the formation of ecchymosis and vitamin K is necessary for blood clotting and healing.
Foods that are high in vitamin C are:
Foods that are high in vitamin K are dark vegetables such as:
You can also incorporate grape seeds into your diet because they have strong antioxidant properties and reduce the formation of frequent ecchymoses.
immobilization: A common recommendation for contusions is immobilization.
It is recommended to position the injured part of the body high so that the blood flows downwards and towards the heart. This reduces the bruise.
If you have stains on your thigh, for example, you put your leg on a table (on a pillow).
How to hide bruises?
To choose the right makeup, a color analysis of the bruise is required. The blue of the bruise is compensated for by yellow make-up.
For a red ecchymosis you need a light brown make-up.
The best type of make-up is a concealer that can be spread over the bruise, but do not use cream in front of the concealer because the result will be worse and the effect will be shorter.
If make-up is used on the bruise, the area around the hematoma must also be covered with it.
This way, the make-up doesn’t appear unnatural or irregular on the skin.
How long are there bruises on the body?
When the blood is absorbed, the hematoma changes color. The color of the contusion shows how long it will take.
The moment the blood is seen under the skin, the hematoma is reddish in color.
After a few days, the hemoglobin in the hematoma changes color.
The bruise turns blue-purple or black after 1 or 2 days.
After about 5-10 days, the ecchymoses can appear slightly yellowish or greenish. As a result, the bruise turns brownish-yellowish or brownish after about 10-14 days. The healing times are usually 2-3 weeks.
However, in some cases, the hematoma can persist for a month, especially in the elderly.
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