A. Traditions of folk music in Mutsching
The Mutschingers have always loved music. The best proof of this is the fact that some elderly villagers today even have up to 120 folk songs with 5-7 "movements each" To be able to sing (stanzas). Mutschingen was known far and wide as a people who enjoyed singing. Today, more than 40 years after World War II, when they are scattered around the world, they sing old folk songs at every major gathering. (195.)
Already in the original home in Fulda one spoke of “wanderlusting founders" (196.), because wherever they went and tried their luck, the folk song was their faithful companion.
|Singing choir conducted by Jakob Strigens|
Before the war there was a lot of singing everywhere: at work, at the end of the day, on a holiday, in the family, with comrades, peeling Kukuruz, feathering, in the wine cellars, in the spinning rooms, at weddings as at all dance events and also at the military. (197.) This musical tradition was brought back from the original home and passed on to future generations. It used to be never sung in an organized form, but always spontaneously, in the old, traditional form.
It was not until 1905 that the Roman Catholic Reading Association was founded in Mutsching, which not only conveyed general knowledge, but also sang a lot.
Shortly after the founding of the Hungarian German People’s Education Association in 1924, a local group was formed in Mutsching. For a long time also worked in the Volksbildungsverein Choir, not only in Mutsching, but also was also well known in the neighboring municipalities. The success of the Mutschinger Singing Association was primarily due to Dechant Johann Kaufmann, who worked as a pastor in Mutsching from 1918 to 1940 and who rehearsed many songs with both children and adults.
At the end of the 1930s, the Volksbildungsverein dissolved and in 1940 the Volksbund was founded. Then it didn’t become “native" Songs, especially Reich German folk and art songs as well as soldier songs. Among other things, the Erika song, the Horst-Wessel song were popular, but also “The rotten bones tremble", "In front of the barracks", "We are driving towards Engelland" and sung other marching songs. In the second half of 1944, when the vast surroundings of Mutsching became the scene of fierce fighting, which also claimed great sacrifices from the Hungarian Germans, the song also fell silent for a short time in Mutsching.
After a short break, when the resettled people were already settling into their new home, they met in the former one "German occupation zones again with friends, and people sang despite the pressing housing shortage and catastrophic food shortages.
Outsiders may perhaps see it as a black humor that many Mutschinger sang old, familiar songs even when the greatest stroke of fate, namely when they left their homeland, in the dirty cattle wagons, and also played fun as if one were not at all unknown Would have driven in the future.
The end of the war, the resettlement in 1946 and 1947, meant too in musical life of the village one decisive change. The former uniform German-speaking and Catholic village community disbanded, relatives, friends and even families were torn apart and scattered in all directions. It took a long time for the earlier music culture to blossom again, but now in its new home, especially in the Federal Republic of Germany and the USA.
B. children’s songs, children’s games
B.1. The role of music in preschool
Singing was one of the Mutschingers like water and wine to life. Music was an indelible element of life for the village population, like diocese bishop Dr. Josef Cserháti / Zepf at the big church festival, at the anniversary fair in Mutsching in 1983, at the church service said: “The Mutschingen are a special kind of people. Wherever they are, in their old homeland, in Germany, in America, in Mallorca, there you sing, there is humor."
Singing started at the cradle. The birth of the child was a special family event, the most important moment in the life of the big family. All family members were happy about the newborn child. The mother surrounded the little one with special love and tenderness. When she put her baby in the cradle, she leaned meekly over the rocking bed, quietly whispering repeatedly: “Sh-sh-sh" and rocked the bed in a steady rhythm (198.) A few weeks after birth, the mother sang the ancient lullaby: “Schlof Kenj, schof!" I.
When the child was eight months old, it was no longer breastfed. The mother gradually had to do the housework and field work again and the grandmother (Aller) and the great-grandmother (Uraller) took over the role of mother. They often put the toddler on their lap and sang old children’s songs, but also popular folk songs. At that time there was no kindergarten, and mothers and grandmothers also had to take on this role. (199)
B.2. Children’s games and children’s songs before 1945
If you tell the children today that you grew up without hi-fi systems, radio and television sets, turntables, and tape recorders, they look so incredibly compassionate. You can hardly imagine that you could have a lot of fun without these modern electronic devices. It was never boring for the children, even though they got almost no toys because of the great poverty. The gifts for Christmas Day were just little things like baker’s dolls, nuts, apples and similar “little things". Nevertheless, everyone was happy about everything.
In the spring, the cattle lost their long winter hair. The men and the boys brushed the cattle. The boys diligently collected the hair of the horses and cattle to make balls (200.) In the 20s and 30s there were no rubber balls in the village. Many children saw the first rubber ball in the city or in a larger community. The hairballs were very good for Piece (play in a circle) and to throw the roof. It was something special for the boys "Kaljewerfen", throw a small wedge. The little wedge was a wooden egg. As an Easter gift, each boy received wooden eggs from the sponsors. A board came up on a brick. The Kalje was placed on it. Half of the boys playing were inside in a circle to throw wood, the other half were outside to catch the Kalje. When throwing, the stick with which it was thrown also flew far away. The wooden egg even flew over gardens and straw sticks. The throwers had to quickly fetch their stick and use it to touch the brick. Those who were outside had to quickly touch the Zigelstein with the wooden egg. If those with the wooden egg were faster than the throwing boy with the stick, then they were allowed in to throw and the others had to get out.
In the months with an “r" it was said that the boys were not allowed to go to school barefoot or sit on the ground. As soon as the earth was warm, the much-practiced girl game began. It was getoubt (ung. dob), d. H. thrown. One of five pebbles was thrown up and then another was quickly picked up so that the thrown up and the fallen down pebbles could still be reached. Then the two stones that were already in hand were thrown up and a third was picked up. Then three were thrown up.
In summer the boys also had a “ re car" (Toy car made of willow). (201.) With this they got clover for their stable rabbits. According to the boys, the stable hares were now their property. They were allowed to swap them, and also give them away, but they came to be slaughtered in the family pot.
The children had no shoes, just lumps. There was a simple type of wooden sandal: the boys could make it themselves. You only needed a board, made to fit the sole of the foot, and two small leather straps over the forefoot. In the winter, then Footboard two wires pulled from front to back. As soon as the first ice cream came, it was the boys’ slip. Most of the children drove with this “Fabutschen" (ung. fapapucs = wooden slippers) down with two wires ice skate, because real ice skates only had a few children. The winter provided the children with amusing entertainment and the best opportunities to play.
The children longed for the snow in autumn. When the first snowflakes fell, there was great joy among the children. Soon the attic of carriage brought down. One drove down the high place or a higher hill (Kippelje). The children met a large number of comrades outside on the hill. Funny shouts, loud laughter and squeaking could be heard from afar. "Clear the path!" "Out of the way!", so it went on continuously. The highlight of the day, however, came when the somewhat older boys "fed"" had and with the big one sleigh arrived (202nd). Sometimes there were 10-12 children close together, sitting on the sled. At first everything went well. Little by little the masses of snow got stuck, and the whole track was almost pure ice. It was always faster and faster and the children were afraid. The drivers did not have the strength to control the racing sled. So he sometimes rushed through a house into a house. The picket fence was broken, but the children were safe. It was getting dark now, the bells were ringing “Amri" (Ave Maria), that was the sign of departure. It was the greatest joy to slide with the sledge.
Before World War II are only single children, sons of some intellectuals Skied. The equipment would have been too expensive for the children.
Have already in school separate Jacks their particular Had girls circle. The girls were usually 2-3 years younger than them. (203.) You could only play with these girls who also went to the “huts" the boys came and in the winter to dance in the rooms. There have also been fights with other comrades that for some reason rob the boys of the girls" wanted to. The boys usually spent Sunday afternoons with the girls until after supper.
The girls played often "Green grass, green grass. " They danced in a circle. A girl stood inside in a circle and sang the song: (204.)
Green grass, green grass
under my feet,
I had time yesterday,
to kiss my girl.
Blue, foxglove blue,
The virgin looks good,
in the green wreath
the virgin must dance.
Little sheep, little sheep, kneel at your feet.
The girl in the circle knelt before someone, the girls in the circle continued to sing:
I had time yesterday,
kissing my girl.
Do you kiss whoever you want,
Oh dear, my dear child!
The child got up and kissed the one in front of whom it was kneeling. This now came into the circle. They took hold of both hands and skipped three times from the side to the center of the circle. The singers" continued to sing:
It turns on the chain,
that everything sounds.
Which one will be the most beautiful
in this ring!
The singers stopped. Now the girl who gave the kiss sang:
Dear girl, darling,
That gives a nice little girl,
that turns around three times,
until I come again.
The kissed girl turned three times, during which the other went in a circle, once around the spinning one, then the first pointed with both arms to the right:
To the trallalala
and pointed to the second:
I have no peace with this bagas.
The game started all over again.
That was very popular among the girls and boys circle game with the ball. (205.) They gathered in a girls’ house on Sunday afternoon. A large circle was formed. Two groups were formed. The girls or boys measured themselves on a stick with their fingers. Whoever was highest was allowed to call. His group stood on the edge of the large circle. The others inside in a circle. The girls and boys in the circle were very careful where the ball came from.
Suddenly someone shot the ball out of the circle unexpectedly. They tried to catch the ball and hit someone outside. If they met you, they would have to stand in a circle.
The ball was often hidden in a robe under the apron. Then you called for the ball: "Who has the ball!" If someone was hit, he would have to go into the circle.
The Nußradel (Nut swing) was also part of the children’s fun pastime. In the old houses there was a long beam (passage) on the ceiling everywhere. A long thread was tied on this and a nut was hung at the bottom. Several nuts lay in a circle on the floor. With the nut swing you had to target these nuts. You could keep the nuts you hit on the first shot.
All boys knew this before the war buy cheap junk. It was stopped (ung. Dob = throw). Jogging means something like holding several things in one hand.
That was also among the boys and boys Plemper game well known (206.) The boys braided a braid from hair and rags, a “Plemper". The girls and boys stood in a circle. One picked up the approximately 30 cm long plemper and walked around in a circle. Suddenly he suddenly put the plemper behind someone. He noticed it and chased the other with the plemper and wanted to hit him with it. He had to run until he couldn’t get to a free place where he had put the Plemper. But if a guy or a girl didn’t notice that the plemper lay behind him, he or she was beaten.
The boys formed smaller groups according to their different age groups: "gangs". These gangs remained until the vintage was confirmed. The age group had a gang leader who was often the best student in the class. He was always followed. The children played together on different occasions.
Was under 15 years old Fickmühle (Dilemma) played. One often played with beans, peas or kukuruz. (207) Cycles ( "Bizykel") existed only in very small numbers before the Second World War. Motorcycles (motorbikes) had only three families (Emmerich and Josef Maercz and Johann Both, respectively).
The boys played with money "Kreuzerje" (after the old coin cruiser). In older age they were allowed to Push the cone.
The children or the adults made often the Toys themselves. They made “Zirock" Oxen, wooden wagons, pumpkin lamps, wicker sticks, pipes, all kinds of toys that served as horses. You have the “Gaule" harnessed, and then ran around with the other children in the courtyard and Hotter. (208)
It was too Tragantschen (Cart, ung. Tragacs). The girls often sewed them themselves dolls of old rags and filled them with chaff. From old rags were too balls manufactured. Boys built like girls of dry Kukuruz cones houses and stables. The boys also did “csúzli" (Slingshot, throwing device). Of course there were also numerous other games.
Children sometimes hid, played "Aputschje". One closed his eyes while the others hid, “ducked".
At these games, there were also many girls and boys children’s songs sung so E.g .: (209.)
Blue, blue, foxglove
The virgin looks good!
Once she has to dance.
Three times, three times,
Until I come to you again.
After the rain, the children liked to wade in the washed-up clay and turned it into animal figures or houses. In the "ditch" (Bach) one built dams, so that one could also bathe in the somewhat deeper water. It was often called "robber and gendarme" played or "celebrated church service with the ‘Lord’ (pastor) and cantor". All kinds of games could also be shown in an empty barn. Some boys had a horse-drawn wagon with complete equipment, drawbar, ladders, etc. The boys played with sticks and thin ropes balancing act (Twine) team of horses. All sorts of agricultural and residential equipment such. B. plow zinc (plow wagons), tires of wagon wheels and. The like. could be used as a toy. Pipes were carved from willow branches and human heads from pumpkins.
If the child ran to the mother crying because it hurt, the mother knew how to comfort her. She stroked and breathed on the painful area and said the consolation:
Haale (heal), haale blessing!
Trei Tok (day) rain,
Trei Tok snow,
It hurts jo nimi!
The teacher, who was born on a Pussta that previously belonged to Mutsching Michael Abel also recorded these but also other children’s songs and counting rhymes:
1. I step on the chain,
that everything sounds
That gives a nice little girl.
That turns three times,
until I come back.
2. I take the key
and close firmly,
For trillili, for trallala
to this Pogatscherl,
I have no peace.
1. Is the black “cook" there,
No no no.
She has to drive around three times
Lose the pot forty times
Fifty times, go away.
2. Nobleman, beggar, farmer, soldier,
King, emperor, pants-shit, you’re gone!
3. One, two, three,
Hoe, hoe, hot,
Hoe, hoe, witch handle,
Old women eat a lot.
4. The bread is in the box,
The boys have to fast.
The knife is next to it.
My father was a weaver,
My mother was a cook,
What she cooks eats the sow.
B.3. Music lessons in school
With some surprise, the Hungarian-German child at the age of six was able to find out in elementary school that there was hardly any singing in lower school and in German. (210)
In the first months of the first class, the children learned songs such as B: "Fox you stole the goose". Before Christmas: “At the fountain in front of the gate", "O Christmas Tree", and the “Christ Child" and "You Christians come here" (211.) One also learned songs for other church holidays. Furthermore, some simple songs were rehearsed with the children, such as “Cuckoo" etc. On Mothers’ Day they sang the song: “If a bird comes flying".
No particular educational role was assigned to singing as a subject. Arithmetic, reading and writing were also often practiced in the singing lessons.
The Hungarian language was introduced in the entire class from the second grade. Except for religion, everything was taught in Hungarian. For the school youth, the use of the German mother tongue was actually before 1940 – the “Volksbundzeit" – forbidden.
Not that much Hungarian songs were learned either. Elderly villagers can still remember the following Hungarian songs: “Kis lak áll a nagy Duna mentében", "Ne menj rózsám a tarlóra", "Pántlikás kalapom", "Rácsos kapu, rácsos ablak", "Az a szép, az a szép", "Erdő mellett nem jó lakni", "Sárga kukoricaszár", "Ha én nékem száz forintom volna", "Esteledik, alkonyodik, szól a falu toronya", "Nádfedeles kis házikóm", "Ég a kunyhó, ropog a nád", "Megy a gőzös, megy a gőzös. " and many others (212.)
Hungarian hymns were also rehearsed. In autumn and spring, school children had to go to church every day. The cantor played the organ at the workday fairs, and the youth sang the songs from her hymnbook “Guardian Angel". The following Hungarian hymns were sung: “Áldozattal járul hozzád", (Father, your children), “Bemegyek szent templomodba" (God and Father, we appear), “Dicsőség mennyben az Istennek" (Glory to our God in heaven), “A keresztfához megyek" (Cross Tribe, I hug you), “Uram, Jézus légy velünk" (Jesus, Jesus come to me), “Üdvözlégy Oltáriszentség" (Greetings, veiled God), “Zálogát adtad, ó Jézus" (Pledge of eternal love), “Egek ékessége" (High and glorious.) The papal hymn: "Get Szent Péter sírba téve" (Where St. Peter is buried). (213)
No unusual methods were used in singing lessons. In a classroom, a teacher often taught two classes simultaneously, a total of 80-90 students. The teacher had 25 minutes for one class. The songs were rehearsed by ear. The teacher sang the song once, then it was learned line by line. The dean Johann Kaufmann may have done most of the flourishing of the Hungarian German folk song. When the students knew the new song by heart, he had accompanied the children with his violin. With the violin bow he warned the inattentive and untidy students to attention. With a serious expression, he measured the students who could not sing along and were bored. (214)
The national anthem was sung on New Year’s Day, March 15, August 20, among others. Some German folk songs were also rehearsed in elementary school, but very few (215.)
During the breaks, only Hungarian songs were allowed to be sung, such as: “Bújj, bújj, zöld ág", "Baskets áll egy kislányka", "Ispilángi rózsa" etc.
German children’s songs were not taught to the little ones of the school youth.
C. Folk song treasure
At the age of 12, a girl stayed away from school and was already acting like a real maid. At the end of the day, but especially on Sunday afternoon, people came together after the litany to walk along the alley. You met a comrade, and everyone talked about everything. Of course you also sang some songs. Soon the boys, about three years older, came and chatting and singing began. On Sunday evening, the young girls were allowed to “a little longer" fail. At this time, there was also a lot of singing after 8 p.m. The Juchhe cry penetrated into the distant points of the village (219th)
Already at the age of 12, a wide variety of jobs were done. When you were 12-14 you were often involved in the work like an adult. Even if you were tired and troubled, you sang with the comrades to forget grief and need.
One sang together with friends of the same age, often accompanied by instruments, formerly with violin, zither and cymbal, harmonica, and later also with whole string and brass bands.
The small house daughters had to pack their bundles at the age of 12 and often had to move to far-flung villages in order to make a living as maids and earn the staff. Many girls came to Dumbawa / Dombóvár or Pécs / Pecs, but most of them came to Ko-pisch / Kaposvár. Once a week they were finished. Then the young girls met in their piebald, lively costumes, which caused a sensation everywhere. In the city they walked arm in arm through the long streets and sang the German songs. With their singing they often surprised music experts. Perhaps with astonishment the best known collector of Hungarian German folk songs was introduced 1945, Emmerich Kramer, 1932 firmly, that you couldn’t find a better melody for the text with spring mood than the nice one minuet with Rococo atmosphere. The Mutshingen girls performed this minuet in an unforgettable form. The Listeners could thereby correctly understand Mozart’s emotional contact with the German folk song. (Kramer, Imre: A magyarországi német népdal. P. 46.)
The girls wore the folk songs in a wonderful way natural morecoherence in front. Kramer recorded two folk songs: “Maria wanted to go for a walk" (Sung by Elisabeth Martin, 24 years old, recorded in 1932) and the song “Spring is already beginning". These proficient maids also cared for the popular folk songs with so much love, so that they drive away their plaintive homesickness abroad. They served rich people who already had radio sets at that time and heard many Hungarian folk songs, even more art songs (Hungarian nóta). The girls could also watch the individual holidays, but also the family events, name and festival days. In these Hungarian families they learned a number of Hungarian folk and art songs that the former maids later sang in their hometown.
The two-part singing was already “in the blood of the Germans in Mutsching". You couldn’t imagine a folk song without two or more voices. In the same way, the music specialist was captivated by the fact that the young girls sang several, sometimes 5-7 movements in most folk songs.
At the age of 12-14, most of the small sons had to hire themselves as servants. They served many times in Protestant communities such as Gal-lass / Kalazno, Giech / Kéty, Warschad / Varsád, Mutzwar / Mucsfa, Isning / Izmé-ny. The boys were included in the military at the age of 19-20. They mostly served in Kopisch / Kaposvár, Pécs / Pécs, Seckshard / Szekszárd, Tol-nau / Tolna or Frankenstadt / Baja. In the military, one could not only learn the Hungarian language, but also numerous Hungarian songs and art songs. In their free time they sang Hungarian songs with their Hungarian comrades. You could also see how the “real Hungarians" talked about how they “mulated" (exuberantly scattered) with wine and beer or schnapps, while a gypsy with the violin played the songs in their ears. The Mutschingen boys soon recognized the considerable difference between Hungarian and Hungarian German folk songs, the different ways of performing, such as Rubato (free rhythm), Parlando (speech-like singing), as well as the different rhythms u. The like. They avoided the Hungarian art songs that were sung with too much pathos (217.)
The disarmed boys liked to sing songs like "Pécsvárosi fenyveserdő aljában" at various gatherings in Mutsching", "Szőke vice a Tiszának", "Magas jegenyefán", "Requirementultam a konyhára", "Piros pünkösd napján", "Kék nefelejcs", "Az a szép, az a szép", "Rácsos kapu, rácsos ablak", "Kis lak áll a nagy Duna mentében", "Nem én lettem hűtlen hozzád", "Ahogy én szeretlek", "Piros, piros", "Hogyha ír majd, édesanyám". These were only major songs. The Mutschingers did not like to sing the Hungarian songs in minor: they were considered too sad.
With great surprise, the Hungarian-German who stayed behind in Mutsching can state today that the compatriots who had moved to the United States, Canada, and the Federal Republic of Germany had learned the folk songs and "Nota" often with 4-5 stanzas omitted with great joy and singing by heart (218.)
If the girls or boys got married before the war, they no longer had as much time and opportunity to sing and dance. With feather wear, spinning, in the "spinning room", with the “roast steak" and on other occasions people continued to sing. The middle and especially the older generation sang less, but more with the big ones
Joy listened to how beautifully their descendants, their children and grandchildren sing the old German songs.
The folk song collector is still surprised today by how many songs have aged women and men in their memory. Argentinean folklorist Carlos Vega may have been right, saying: “Here is when an old person dies than a library burns down". And really, one can only admire how many folk songs, folk tales z. For example, the memory of Anna Moser, a teacher who had died a few years ago, was kept in her memory and she was able to memorize most of the folk songs with 3-7 movements. (219)
This rich treasure was cared for almost exclusively orally. There were no song books at all. It was sung by ear.
The origin of many songscertainly goes back to the old days. The well-known Berlin folk song collector Dr. Axel Hesse firmly states that the people often also kept Old Germanic songs. This is especially true for the children’s songs. There are also songs from the immigration period that were brought back from the old homeland. From the various wars, especially from military service in the k. u. k. Army, the disarmed soldiers also took many songs with them. After the First World War, many Mutschingers worked in Germany, where they also learned numerous German songs. In various ways, the Mutschinger have also included homeland songs, street music (songs) and other, non-indigenous songs in their repertoire. Modern influences can already be seen from the interwar period, but above all from the postwar period. (220)
The songs cover a wide variety of topics. There are folk songs that tell about the life of the peasants, about history, about nature, about the job, marriage, home, hiking and war. A large number of robbery and knightly songs were found in the Mutschinger musical treasure, such as the Rinaldini song (In the forest’s deepest grounds). Love stories with a happy and sad ending were also often told. The song by “Prinz Eugen" is a typical historical song. In large numbers one finds so-called farewell and hiking songs in the Mutschings folk song treasure z. B. "How the little flowers tremble outside", "Now and now there is an end" and "Farewell, you silent house". (221)
Little was sung about true, happy love; B. “Loving brings great joy". Love is the theme of songs like "Blue Eyes", "At so late in the evening", "In a cool reason", "Leave, leave, leave". Soldier songs were also popular. "I had a comrade", "Stand in dark midnight", "Far from Sedan", “Many fell in Russia", “What’s new to hear?. ".
Hunters songs, hunter ballads were also sung often “There was a hunter in bright moonlight", "A girl wants to get up early". Professional songs can be described as: “A shepherdess. ", "Whether I’m a shepherd right away". The song “I am Doctor Eisenbarth". The close connection with nature and with the homeland is expressed in the following songs: “A song line is fine", "In the woods and on the heath", "I want to live in the forest", or "I’m back to my home country", "If you go around the world", "Farewell, my dear homeland".
content one could use this kind of folk music in songs of epic character (folk ballads, sentimental songs and narrative songs), in lyrical songs such as B. love, farewell, homeland, hiking, hunter, soldier and professional songs or social songs such as customs, dance and children’s songs. (223)
This wealth of folk songs shows how diverse the repertoire was, which extended to almost all areas of human life. In addition to the special richness in the topic and in the musical form, the simplicity and originality of the folk songs surprise the experts. The way these songs are performed has also preserved the old elements, which are 200 years old.
Language and style of folk songs in Mutsching correspond to the level of German songs par excellence. The following examples support this finding:
- Standing epitetha, that is, simple epithets are repeated continuously even if this creates a tautology: e.g. B. in the songs: "Most beautiful treasure", "Dear girl", "Wrong girl", "Wrong tongue".
- Certain numbers, which in the old days had symbolic, evocative meaning, but are now only mere formulas: there I see a rope floating in it three Counts sat. Fly it two turtledoves.
- Many lyrical Love, nature- and Wanderlieder start with an atmospheric nature picture, e.g. B.
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