Becker-Textor, I. 1996
Education – upbringing – care: a harmonious triad
Out: Education, upbringing, childcare in Bavaria 1996, Issue 2, pp. 4-6 (The text has been slightly revised and shortened.)
Education – upbringing – care: a harmonious triad
In the Bavarian Kindergarten Act of July 25, 1972 – it is still valid – Art. 1 defines the kindergarten in more detail: "Kindergartens are preschool facilities. They are used for education from the age of 3 until the beginning of compulsory schooling". The comment by Straßberger (1994) explains: "Institutions in the pre-school area are to be understood as family-supplementing and counseling institutions. Kindergartens within the meaning of the law are not supposed to be ‘pre-schools’, i.e. Schools in front of school. ; thus differentiation from institutions that do without any upbringing or education or that only want to pursue education in the sense of teaching material . " (P. 16).
The tasks of the kindergarten are defined in Art. 7 BayKiG: "The kindergarten supports and complements family upbringing in order to provide the children with the best development and educational opportunities based on scientific research results. It offers child-friendly educational opportunities, grants general and individual educational help, promotes personal development and social behavior and tries to compensate for deficiencies in development. He advises parents on educational issues".
The general mandate of the kindergarten is thus enshrined in law: an educational task to complement the family with the aim of providing the children with the best opportunities for development and education. This differentiates the kindergarten from the Bayer. Kindergarten Act in no way from a kindergarten according to the Child and Youth Welfare Act: "In kindergartens. in which children spend part of the day or all day, the development of the child should be promoted to an independent and socially responsible personality. The task includes childcare, education and upbringing. The range of services should be oriented pedagogically and organizationally to the needs of children and their families (KJHG)" (Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth, 1995, p. 64). Furthermore, the kindergarten has always had the task of cooperating with parents, offering youth and family support and networking. Nothing has changed and nothing will change.
It is tempting to take a look at the recommendations of the Education Commission, the structure plan for education. The Education Commission of the German Education Council already submitted its report in 1970 – before the Bavarian Kindergarten Act came into force – which has been coordinated with all federal states and whose thoughts still shape some kindergarten law or daycare law to this day. The elementary area is understood here as part of the education system. The educational commission describes the tasks of the kindergarten: "Kindergartens perform two different tasks: Firstly, the admission of children for certain times of the day relieves the mothers in particular of tasks that arise from their household, younger children or a job; on the other hand, the pre-school institutions are to provide pedagogical support for the children" (German Education Council, 1973, p. 102).
The Education Commission also commented on the implementation of this task: "One of the traditional guiding principles of kindergartens is to create a special freedom for the child’s idiosyncrasy and to give children the opportunity to play in a community in a playful manner. Starting with the suspected peculiarity of childhood, the child should be brought closer to the environment beyond his own family. The pedagogical practice of today’s kindergarten [1970!] Corresponds to the theory of the self-maturing child. One waits for what the child develops ‘automatically’ in its development, in order to then strengthen and promote the matured wealth. It is a basic principle of elementary education that the learning processes are linked to the development and learning history of each child. It would be a relapse into normative development thinking if one tried to level out these differences as quickly as possible instead of just starting from them. Observing and respecting the individuality of even the young child is also an important prerequisite for finding the child’s identity and promoting greater independence and independence . " (German Education Council, 1973, pp. 103ff.).
The education commission also called for a renewed kindergarten education: "In addition to promoting cognitive and social development, the renewed kindergarten pedagogy has to focus more on the problems of a child’s emotional development and deal with emotional disorders that often arise as a result of educational problems. In many cases, these are the real cause of children’s developmental deficit, so that the increased learning opportunities of a new stimulus environment are of little use in themselves because they cannot be taken up by such children" (German Education Council, 1973).
Last but not least, the education commission describes the most important criteria for the content of good kindergarten work:
- "The kindergarten offers many opportunities for social learning;
- he takes into account the individual differences of the children and their special needs;
- it starts from the immediate environment of the child, which is expanded and developed expansively in the sense of environmental enrichment;
- he gives the children enough time to be able to express themselves freely and through various media;
- it allows the child to use his whole body and allows enough rest;
- he lays the foundations for later learning and pays attention to crisis points in learning development;
- It takes into account the interests and needs of the parents by reflecting on the socio-cultural background of the children in the program design and by advising the parents through the educators and participating in the planning. .
From the child’s entry into kindergarten, close cooperation between kindergarten and home is necessary. Parents should be regularly informed about their children’s development and provided with information material so that they can understand and support the work of the kindergarten. Difficulties that arise should be discussed in joint discussions with the parents and other forms of active participation by the parents in the kindergartens should be developed" (German Education Council, 1973, p. 115).
Conclusion for kindergarten in 1996: Upbringing, education, care have always been inextricably linked. Child well-being only creates motivation and willingness to accept cognitive learning offers – in the sense of educational offers. Emotional security leads to self-confidence, encourages the child to go unknown ways, to experiment. Social skills help the child find their way in the community of their peers and in the world. In the game, the child exercises freedom of choice and develops a basic understanding of democracy. A prepared environment and project work open up new perspectives for the child for elementary learning with regard to school and later life.
Upbringing, education, care are not opposites, they are not mutually exclusive, but complement each other in a different way "ratio". The mandate of the kindergarten is: Education – Education – Care. Any questions?
Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth: Child and Youth Welfare Act (SGB VIII). Bonn 1995
German Education Council: Recommendations of the Education Commission. Stuttgart: Velcro 1973
Straßberger, G .: Bavarian Kindergarten Act. Cologne: Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, 6th ed. 1994
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