Guide: emergency, accident, rescue – first aid

Every year, more than five million people crash in their own home. However, many of these accidents can be avoided. We present some of the most common emergencies and give tips on how to act. The most important rule: keep a cool head! Check what happened and call emergency services or the emergency medical service immediately.

Typical causes of accidents in the home and office

Tilted chairs: Strains, sprains or torn ligaments are very often the result of the fall of ladders, chairs, chests of drawers or tables that are used as a stand aid.

  • Only set up the ladder on a level surface so that it is non-slip
  • clear carpets and runners beforehand
  • never work on the top step if you cannot use your hip to support yourself on the boom
  • Descend more often and move the ladder
  • never climb on chairs, armchairs or dressers

Smooth tiles: Even the smallest remains of water, bath oil or shower gel make tiles slippery.

  • Place a non-slip mat in the shower or bath
  • Attach stable grab handles in the shower and bath area for safe entry and exit

Glass and porcelain: Broken glasses and cups can easily lead to cuts on the mouth and hands.

  • Discard cracked glasses and broken porcelain
  • Soak up splinters, do not wipe them up, they get caught in the rag

Defective electrical devices: Electric shocks can be life-threatening. They can still lead to cardiac arrest 24 hours later. A doctor must always examine electrocuted victims.

  • Pay attention to the quality seal when buying (CE, GS, VDE)
  • Cleaning only when the plug is removed
  • do not use defective devices
  • Disconnect the hair dryer or shaver from the mains after use – risk of electric shock if they come into contact with water
  • Do not patch open cables with insulating tape, but replace them
  • Check the power cable once a year
  • Only have repairs carried out by a specialist

Loose cables: You get caught very quickly on cables that are dangling or lying loose on the floor.

  • Combine several cables in cable hoses or with special clips
  • Lay the power cable as firmly as possible on the floor rails
  • Use the extension fork only for a short time

chemicals: Children are curious, easily confuse colorful detergent bottles with drinks bottles, pills with candies and then poison themselves with them.

  • Store all cleaners, liquid detergents, oven spray, paints, nitro thinner and glue in a tall, lockable cabinet
  • lock away all medicines and pill boxes
  • Keep creams and hair care products away from children

Stumbling Carpets: Raised carpet corners or slippery runners on smooth parquet flooring are dangerous falls.

  • Glue runners, put anti-slip mats or simply put rubber preserving rings underneath
  • Spray carpet stop spray on the back
  • Press wavy carpets firmly onto the floor with double-sided adhesive tape or Velcro
  • straighten folded corners of the carpet immediately after vacuuming

Bulky furniture: As many obstacles as possible should be cleared out of the way in the apartment.

  • Do not deliver room
  • prefer to sort out old furniture
  • Keep paths such as stairs and corridors clear
  • Protect pointed and sharp edges
  • Keep at least 1.50 meters of free maneuvering space in front of cupboards and showcases
  • never run in the dark, always turn on the light

Kitchen: Even the smallest work can be dangerous.

  • never catch a falling knife
  • Wear aprons and oven gloves to prevent scalding and burns
  • buy large stove protection for small children, which also covers switches
  • Remove the kettle, deep fryer, blender etc. immediately after use
  • Attach child protection devices to drawers, stoves and dishwashers
  • Teach children to use kitchen appliances safely in good time

fires: When roasting, fat can overheat in just a few minutes and then catch fire. Even unattended fireplaces, fireplaces, etc. can lead to fires.

  • Never extinguish burning oil with water – risk of explosion!
  • Use a fire blanket for larger fires
  • Never leave candles and open fire unattended
  • Install smoke detectors mainly in bedrooms and children’s rooms

Garden area: In addition, accidents can quickly occur if the garden is inattentive. Here, caution is always required when performing a wide variety of tasks.

  • Cut trees or pick fruit only with a safe ladder
  • Never put garden tools with the tip or tines facing up – there is a risk of stepping inside
  • Keep chainsaw or electric hedge trimmer away from your body
  • never mow barefoot or in sandals on hot days
  • Never inhale pesticide fumes

Help from A – Z

Rapid action is always required in emergencies. However, in most cases it is necessary to call a doctor immediately or to go straight to the hospital. By acting correctly and quickly in such situations, lives can be saved.

Allergic shock: This usually occurs 15 minutes after contact with the allergenic substance (e.g. food, insect bites, medication). The first signs are shortness of breath, reddening of the skin, swelling, wheals and anxiety.

  • Help: Emergency 112 must be dialed immediately. Tight clothes are opened. The victim is placed in a raised torso and then covered. If there are signs of shock such as pale skin, freezing and cold sweat, the shock position is necessary (see chapter "The most important handles"). The pulse and breathing must also be checked and the patient calmed down.

Swelling of the airways: An insect bite, burns and burns can cause the respiratory tract or tongue to swell. In most cases, shortness of breath occurs.

  • Help: The injured person is given ice cream to suck or cold water to gargle. The neck and neck are cooled with wet towels. Urgent dial 112.

Asthma attack: Those affected hardly get any air. They breathe whistling and are afraid. The lips and / or face turn blue and there is cold sweat.

  • Help: The patient has to be calmed down. He is seated upright. You support your arms, for example on the back of a chair. Tight clothes and the window must be opened wide. The person concerned must be helped when taking medication. If the situation does not improve, dial 112.

Eye injury: Under no circumstances should a foreign body stuck in the eyeball be removed. Here a compress is placed on the eye and carefully fixed. Then both eyes are blindfolded and the emergency number 112 is dialed or directly driven to the hospital.

  • Help: If there is a speck of dust or insects in the eye, never wipe your fingers, but always with a cloth. To do this, always wipe the foreign body out of the eye with a clean piece of cloth. The eyelids may have to be raised or pulled down here. Corrosive liquids are thoroughly rinsed out with clear, lukewarm water. Hold the head to the side and rinse from the inner corner of the eye.

Swimming accident: If someone threatens to drown, you pull the victim out of the water with a branch, lifebuoy or rope to the shore. If he is passed out, swim to him and dry him up. You should never jump into the water when heated, always cool down beforehand. Otherwise accidents can easily occur. The DLRG has published bathing rules!

  • Help: Affected persons are put on their side so that the water can flow out of the stomach. Mouth-to-nose ventilation may be necessary (see chapter "The most important handles"). Be sure to dial 112.

Abdominal wound and injury: A stab wound or bruise leads to abdominal damage.

  • Help: Important, don’t forget to put on disposable gloves. Then lay the injured person flat on your back and loosen tight clothing. The wound is then covered with sterile compresses (from the first aid kit or emergency packs from the pharmacy) and then fixed with plaster strips. Be sure to call the emergency doctor. There is an absolute ban on eating, drinking and smoking for the injured.

Bump and bruise: As a rule, bumps on the head are not always harmless. If there is headache and nausea, there may be a concussion. An examination by the doctor is essential here.

  • Help: A cold pack or a cotton cloth soaked in cold water helps to reduce swelling. You then place this on the affected area.

bleeding: After a cut or fall, blood loss that cannot be stopped with a plaster can quickly become dangerous.

  • Help: The wound is wrapped tightly with a sterile gauze bandage. Sometimes a cloth or shirt can be sufficient. You have to press firmly on the wound with your finger or fist until the bleeding stops. The arm or leg is only tied with a belt or cord when the pressure bandage is not working. Basically, wounds more than 2 cm long and 0.5 cm deep should be treated immediately with surgery. Caution: Spray plasters should never be applied to gaping wounds!

Chest injury: Breathing difficulties often occur after broken ribs. Sometimes the injured person can spit blood.

  • Help: If the injured person is conscious, he must be seated upright and supported. You open tight clothes. A sterile, loose bandage should be applied to open wounds. Unconscious people with rib injuries are brought into a stable side position (see chapter "The most important handles"), the injured chest is at the bottom. Dial emergency number 112.

Diarrhea: Slight diarrhea can be treated with home remedies. In the event of prolonged stopping, the doctor must be consulted.

  • Help: The person affected must drink lots of fluids. Thin vegetable broths, herbal teas (peppermint, fennel, chamomile, fennel-anise-caraway mixture) are ideal. If possible, dried blueberries from the pharmacy and an apple grated with the peel should be eaten throughout the day. If the diarrhea persists for more than three days, if there is an additional fever or stool in the blood, a doctor must be consulted.

Febrile seizure: Sometimes children under four years of age experience cramps when they have a fever or high temperature. These usually do not take longer than three minutes. The first warning signs here are red, damp and hot skin and muscle twitches all over the body.

  • Help: The child must then be stripped and laid down. The body is rubbed with a wet, lukewarm cloth to lower the fever. Cold calf wraps can also help. It is important that breathing and circulation are always observed. After the cramp has ended, a fever-reducing suppository (paracetamol) is given. An emergency doctor should then absolutely be called.

Heart attack: The first warning signs of a heart attack are severe pain under the breastbone, pain radiating into the left arm, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and fear of death. Women often experience upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Sufferers have cold sweat on their foreheads and are terrified of death.

  • Help: If a heart attack is suspected, the affected person must be seated with an upright upper body. Tight clothes are taken off and the window is opened wide. Necklaces etc. must of course also be removed. Under no circumstances may the person concerned run around. Important: dial emergency number 112! A constant check of consciousness and breathing is also necessary.

Cardiovascular arrest: Someone breaks down and does not respond when addressed or shaken.

  • Help: Here you must dial 112 immediately. You also start with the resuscitation, the cardiac massage (see chapter "The most important handles"). Resuscitation continues until the emergency doctor comes. Defibrillators are often found in public places such as the train station, airport or government agencies. These can then be used.

Operating a defibrillator: It is always important that a heart pressure massage alternates with ventilation until the defibrillator is used.

  • First the device is switched on and the acoustic instructions of the device are observed.
  • Now the electrodes are glued to the person’s chest. The electrodes show how they should be attached.
  • The defibrillator is now switched on. The person must not be touched under any circumstances, since the device electronically checks the heart’s activity.
  • The instructions of the voice-controlled device must be followed.
  • Defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation take place alternately according to the device’s instructions.

Lumbago: Here the back muscles cramp. Sometimes the stinging pain can be so bad that those affected can hardly move.

  • Help: The best thing to do here is to step up. The person concerned, for example, lies on the floor on his back. The legs are angled higher, for example on the seat of a chair. A hot water bottle or a heated grain pillow can also be helpful. If the pain also radiates into the leg, a doctor must be consulted immediately. It can then be a herniated disc.

Heat stroke: A heat stroke can be triggered by a long, high fever or a stay in extreme heat. It manifests itself in reddened, hot skin, rapid pulse, headache, dizziness, impaired consciousness and a body temperature above 40 degrees.

  • Help: Accessible people are stored and raised with their upper bodies raised. They are then covered with a light sheet. This is constantly wetted with cool water.

Dog and cat bite: Typically, up to 20 percent of dog and 50 percent of cat bites ignite. The result is redness, swelling and pain. If the wound is directly on the face or neck, is large and deep, you need to see a doctor immediately. Especially when there is a fever or when a red line streaks away from the wound.

  • Help: The wound must first be cleaned, disinfected and covered with a sterile wound dressing, then a dressing comes over it. As a precaution, people who do not have a refreshed tetanus vaccination should get vaccinated.

Insect bite: Insect bites can be dangerous for allergy sufferers.

  • Help: In the case of stitches in the mouth and throat area, ice must be sucked immediately and without interruption. The victim also receives a cold envelope on the neck. It is important that emergency call 112 is dialed in case of breathlessness. However, insect bites on the body are usually harmless. These are cooled with ice. You can also apply rubbing alcohol or a raw onion slice. You should also know that bees only stick out of need, so do not disturb or knock them off.

fracture: A distinction is made here between open and closed fractions. With open fractures, the bone pierced the skin. These breaks are considered serious injuries. There is a high risk of infection here.

  • Help: It is important that the wound is covered pressure-free and germ-free. The injured limb is then immobilized by padding with, for example, woolen blankets or triangular scarves. It is important to note that the patient is only moved afterwards if possible. When the fractures are closed, the skin is intact, which makes them more difficult to recognize. The injured person must go to the doctor as soon as possible.

Head injury: The first symptoms of such an injury are drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, brief loss of consciousness and a bleeding head wound.

  • Help: The wound needs to be bandaged. The injured person’s upper body is raised. In addition, the breathing, circulation and pulse are checked. Be sure to dial 112. Talk to the patient soothingly.

Seizure: The victim suddenly falls over. It is no longer responsive and the whole body or even parts of the body may cramp. Sometimes there is bloody salivation. The patient no longer remembers the seizure after the convulsions have ended.

  • Help: It is important that those affected are not held on. All things that endanger him, such as knives or scissors, must be put away. After the cramp has subsided, the person in question is put to one side and breathing, pulse and consciousness are checked. Emergency 112 must be called.

Nosebleeds: This can sometimes happen after a little sneeze.

  • Help: Those affected have to sit down with their heads bowed and their foreheads supported. Then they get a cold cloth on the neck. The nostrils are squeezed together for 10 minutes. Then you check whether the bleeding continues. If so, the nostrils are squeezed for another 10 minutes. After the bleeding has ended, no snorting. However, you should not do anything if the nose is swollen thick. Here there is a suspicion of a broken nose. In this case, a doctor or emergency room must be consulted immediately.

fainting: If the brain does not get enough oxygen, you quickly pass out. Reasons can be a lack of food, exhaustion, soul crises or even long periods of sitting still.

  • Help: Fainted people must always be placed on their back. The legs are raised so that the blood can flow back to the brain. Tight clothes and the window is opened wide. If the fainted person quickly regains consciousness, the breathing must be checked. The affected person is then put into shock (see chapter “The most important handles”) and emergency call 112 is dialed.

Panic attacks: The heart beats and stumbles, the mouth dries up, the throat is tight and the sweat runs down. In addition, there is often the fear of fainting.

  • Help: The patient needs to be reassured. To do this, you draw attention to the surroundings, for example the street, shop windows or people. It is also very reassuring to look at the movement of the second hand on his watch. The victim must inhale deeper than usual and exhale immediately. Then he should hold his breath and count in thoughts from 1001 to 1006 and then inhale again. This is then repeated until the panic attack is over. To relieve stress, the patient can eat nuts (rich in magnesium and B vitamins), but be sure to inquire about allergies beforehand. Chewing gum also has a calming effect. If the person hyperventilates, put a paper bag over his face so that it extends over his nose and mouth. He then has to breathe in and out of the bag. Instead of a bag, the cupped hands can be held in front of his mouth and he breathes into it.

Laceration: Lacerations have rough edges that gape apart. You can get infected quickly.

  • Help: The wounds need to be cleaned and disinfected well. Then you put on a sterile compress and fix it with a bandage. You can have the wound examined by the doctor for safety as to how deep the injury is. For small wounds, a plaster is usually sufficient. However, this should not be chosen too small.

Bruise: One push, one blow while doing sports or gardening is enough and the area in question swells and hurts. There is a bruise.

  • Help: If possible, the part of the body in question must be stored high and then cooled for 15 to 20 minutes with ice cubes or a cool pack. A compress with a vinegar solution (1 part vinegar, 3 parts water) has a decongestant effect.

Bruise: You can quickly pinch a finger or toe in the door, for example.

  • Help: Cool immediately with a cool pack or a cotton cloth soaked in cold water. If the pain does not subside or you cannot move your toe or fingers, you must see a doctor.

Stroke: Signs of a stroke can include hemiplegia (eyelids, corners of the mouth), uncontrolled drooling, speech and swallowing disorders, wetting, breathing disorders and impaired consciousness.

  • Help: Emergency 112 must be dialed immediately!
  • You must not leave the person concerned alone, calm him down and speak to him.
  • Any tight-fitting clothes and dentures are removed.
  • It is important that nothing is given to eat and drink, as swallowing could be disturbed.
  • If the person is conscious, the person with the upper body is raised about 30 degrees, for example by putting a pillow in the back.
  • If the victim is passed out or vomits, he must be placed in a stable side position (see chapter "The most important handles").

Cord injury: Cutting injuries during cooking or handicrafts etc. can quickly occur.

  • Help: Superficial cuts can bleed out a little. This is how fine dirt particles wash out. Then press a sterile compress on the wound for a few minutes to stop the bleeding. Then a plaster can be stuck on. If the item was dirty, the cleaned wound must be disinfected before bandaging. This kills germs (bacteria, viruses and fungi) in the wound. It can also with great force, for example by machines
  • Limbs or parts such as toe or fingers are severed. In some cases, they can be replanted again if the injured person and the amputate arrive at the hospital quickly. The blood loss is stopped here with a pressure bandage. The injured person is brought into shock (see chapter "The most important handles").
  • It is essential to dial 112!
  • The separated part of the body is wrapped in a sterile wound cloth and packed in a plastic bag and sealed well. Under no circumstances should the body part be cleaned or washed.

Shock: Signs of shock can include pale skin, cold sweat, a weak pulse. Sometimes the person trembles.

  • Help: The person concerned must be kept warm in any case. You cover it with a piece of clothing or a blanket. It must be brought into the shock position (see chapter "Important handles"). If the person passes out, they are put on their side in a stable position (see chapter "The most important handles").

Faint: Circulatory failure occurs here. Dizziness may occur and you may become unconscious.

  • Help: The legs of the affected person are raised and the clothes are loosened. In the event of loss of consciousness, breathing and pulse must be checked. The stable lateral position is also important here (see chapter "The most important handles").

Sunburn: Of course everyone wants to enjoy the sun in summer. However, too much UV radiation damages the skin. She quickly blushes and burns.

  • Help: A chamomile wrap on the affected skin area helps here. To do this, pour 1 tablespoon of chamomile flowers with 125 ml of boiling water, let everything steep for 10 minutes and then strain it. Alternatively, you can coat the area in question with natural yoghurt or quark and then cover it with a damp cotton cloth. But be careful, it must not dry, otherwise the skin will tighten and hurt. At the end everything is washed off with water. To prevent sunburn, you should never go unprotected in the sun. It is even better to gently tan in the shade.

Sunstroke: Too much sun on the head and neck irritate the brain and the meninges. First Signs of one Sunstroke is manifested by dizziness, a very red, hot head, headache and neck pain, nausea, vomiting and impaired consciousness. However, the body temperature is normal.

  • Help: Those affected must be brought to a cool, shady place immediately. The upper body is slightly raised and the head is cooled with wet towels. Emergency 112 must be dialed.

Current accident: When electricity flows through the body, it can cause loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest, cardiac arrhythmia and even cardiac arrest, even hours later.

  • Help: Caution, the victim must never be touched if it is still in contact with the power source. Always turn off the power first, otherwise the helper can get an electric shock.
  • Important: Always call a doctor, so dial emergency number 112. In addition, electricity can cause burns at the entry and exit points.

Animal Bite: No matter whether the hedgehog snaps out of the garden or the tame guinea pig or rabbit, germs (tetanus, rabies, fox tapeworm) always penetrate into the tissue.

  • Help: The injured person must always be put down. The affected part of the body is elevated. Then a wound dressing is applied and fixed. A doctor’s visit is necessary here, and the vaccination card should not be forgotten. If the tetanus vaccination has not been refreshed in the past five years, vaccination must be carried out immediately.

Nausea: A flat stomach can have various causes, for example, gastrointestinal disease, spoiled food, infections, side effects of medication or dizziness.

  • Help: Drinking ginger, peppermint or chamomile tea helps with nausea. If vomiting occurs, do not use force to suppress the reflex. So the stomach gets rid of what it doesn’t get. In addition, sipped black tea can calm the stomach. If pain is added and the nausea lasts more than a day, a doctor must be consulted immediately.

Hypothermia: Hypothermia can sometimes occur very quickly. It is enough if you are out and about in wet clothes or just too lightly dressed. Signs of hypothermia are pale skin, blueness Lips and fingernails, listlessness, stiffness of the arms and legs.

  • Help: Those affected must be brought warm immediately. You should take off your wet clothes and wrap yourself in blankets. When the person is conscious, they are given warm, sugary drinks. Never alcohol, it only increases hypothermia. Emergency 112 must be dialed.

Corrosion: Even aggressive household cleaners or car cleaning agents can attack and irritate the skin.

  • Help: It is important that you put on disposable gloves before every aid measure. If the skin is burned, the clothing must be removed immediately. If there is no water, dab off the caustic substances and then loosely bandage the wound. If the digestive tract is injured, it is important to drink water immediately. Under no circumstances should the affected person be brought to vomiting, as this would lead to new burns. Caution: do not drink milk! Emergency 112 must be dialed.

Combustion: Such an accident can quickly occur in the kitchen or while grilling.

  • Help: Affected areas are wiped off with a blanket and then the burns are immediately cooled with cold water. Then you bring the person in shock (see chapter "The most important handles"). Cooling must continue. It is imperative to call the emergency doctor immediately. The wound must be loosely bandaged with a sterile bandage. You only touch this at the edges.
  • Important: ointments, oils, flour or fats should never be burned!
  • Clothing adhering to the body must not be removed, only the doctor may do so.
  • In any case, dial 112.

Scalding: In the household, especially when doing kitchen work, you can quickly scald your hand with boiling water etc..

  • Help: Run cool tap water over the affected area for 10 minutes or until the pain stops. A cooling branding gel from the pharmacy may still be applied. If the skin blisters, a germ-free cover must be provided. Of course, major injuries must always be treated by the doctor.

Poisoning: Poisoning can happen in the home and also when gardening. You can poison yourself by trimming the oleander or by other poisonous plants. Household chemicals are particularly harmful to young children or can be fatal. The first warning signs of the onset of poisoning are abdominal pain that suddenly begins, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, movement disorders, dizziness, sleepiness, sweating, behavioral problems and loss of consciousness.

  • Help: The top priority for poisoning is to keep calm. The regional poison control center should be called at the very first signs. The telephone number can be requested via the emergency number 112. The following information should then be provided:
  • Age and weight of the child or data subject
  • what, when and how much was recorded
  • what symptoms of poisoning occur
  • The child / person concerned must be reassured. You may wipe the leftovers with your finger and give tea, still water or juice to drink. Caution, but do not use milk, salt water, or any home remedies!
  • It is also important that you never induce vomiting on your own.
  • In the event of a deterioration in consciousness, the person concerned is brought into a stable lateral position (see chapter "The most important handles"). It is then absolutely essential to immediately dial 112.
  • To prevent poisoning in children from household chemicals, they should be closed and kept out of the reach of children.
  • Caution also applies to the following plants, they look nice, but are dangerous. They have poisonous flowers, berries or contain poisonous juices. If small children and animals live in the household, you should avoid planting:
    • boxwood
    • buttercup
    • Hellebore
    • yew
    • monkshood
    • ivy
    • angel’s Trumpet
    • laburnum
    • Autumn crocus
    • ilex
    • cherry laurel
    • LigusterLupine
    • lily of the valley
    • daffodil
    • oleander
    • delphinium
    • rhododendron
    • False acacia
    • Snowberry
    • Thuja
    • meadow wild garlic
    • Swallow: If you are too fast and do not chew properly, the food can quickly get stuck in the throat.

      • Help: Prevent the affected person’s upper body. Children are placed over the knee. Then hit the back of your shoulder up to five times with your flat hand. This triggers a cough reflex. If this does not help, you embrace the affected person from behind. The left hand grips the right wrist and the right hand is placed as a fist under the breastbone. Then you pull your arms jerkily backwards towards your chest.
      • However, this grip can lead to splenic rupture and liver tear in children. Therefore, caution is advised here. It should also only be used if there is an acute risk of suffocation.

      Sprain: If you twist or fall, you can get a painful injury. The joint and ligaments can be overstretched. In the worst case, the joint capsule tears.

      • Help: It is important that cooling takes place immediately. A cold pack or ice cubes, each wrapped in a cloth and then put on, should be used for at least 30 minutes. If neither is at hand, cold envelopes are also possible. A support bandage is then put on with the help of an elastic bandage, so that swelling can be prevented.

      Calf cramp: As a rule, the causes of a calf cramp are usually harmless, such as magnesium deficiency, fatigue or overexertion at work and during sports.

      • Help: If a calf cramp occurs, grasp the toes of the foot in question and then pull it towards the shin with all your strength. If the cramp begins while sitting or lying down, get up and walk around. You then step firmly on the floor or with the sole of your foot against the wall. A massage of the calf can relax the muscle again. If the leg cramps occur more frequently, a doctor should be consulted to clarify the causes.

      Wound: Wounds can occur for various reasons. They can be caused by burns, burns, cuts or even falls. Cotton or cellulose should never be placed on a wound. Wounds should never be touched or washed out, with the exception of burns and burns. It should also be noted that wounds are never treated with disinfectants, ointments or powder.

      • Help: Simply stick a plaster strip on small grazes. Larger wounds are covered with a compress. You then fix it with a gauze bandage or plaster.
      • A doctor must always take care of heavily bleeding wounds. Sometimes tendons and nerves can be injured here.

      tick bite: These small but dangerous pests can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease or meningoencephalitis.

      • Help: If you find a tick, it must be removed immediately. There are special tick cards for this. You can also use a pair of tweezers to pull a tick straight up out of your skin without squeezing it.
      • If the tick is not easy to remove or if there is a ring-shaped reddening at the injection site after about five days, a doctor must be consulted immediately. TBE is vaccinated against brain and back inflammation.
      • As a preventative measure, you should wear long trousers and sturdy shoes when walking through the forest and corridor. There are also dangers in high grass, for example in the garden.

      Dental Accident: In the event of an unfortunate fall on the face, you can quickly knock out a tooth. With a timely visit to the doctor, however, the dental accident can often have no consequences.

      • Help: The extracted tooth and all fragments must be carefully collected. They are kept in a food storage bag. You can also just put them in milk. However, they must never be disinfected. Then the doctor must be consulted immediately. The chances are good that the tooth can be replanted and will grow.

      Emergency rescue: the most important handles

      In an emergency, certain rescue operations can help to bring injuries to safety or to stabilize them. The most important handles are presented here.

      Put people out of danger: If someone is in acute danger and needs to be put aside, the following steps are useful.

      • Raising: One approaches the injured or unconscious from the head. Then use both hands to grip under the head, neck and shoulder area. If possible, support the head with the forearms.
      • Support: Afterwards, the affected person is carefully and gently but fluidly raised to sit. His back is supported with his legs.
      • Understand: One arm of the person concerned is just placed in front of the stomach. You then reach under your armpits with both hands and grab your forearm from above.
      • Pull: Then you straighten up with a straight back and pull up the person concerned. Now you can take it to a safe place and put it there carefully.

      Grips in case of a shock: A shock can be life-threatening for those affected. The cause of a shock is always a circulatory failure. The danger here is that the body will then no longer be supplied with sufficient oxygen. In such a situation it is always important that the legs are raised. Lying with raised legs relieves the circulation.

      • The victim is only shocked when he is fully conscious. In the other case, the stable lateral position is the correct position.
      • The legs must always be placed at an angle. To do this, a 20 to 30 cm high object is pushed under the legs. Alternatively, you can hold the person’s feet up a little.
      • It is particularly important that the person concerned is always kept warm.

      Stable lateral position: In the event of loss of consciousness, the person concerned must be quickly moved to the stable side position. This prevents the tongue from slipping into the trachea or the person affected possibly breathing in vomit.

      • You kneel to the side of the person concerned. The victim’s arm on this side is placed at right angles to the body. The palm faces upwards.
      • Now the arm of the other side is gripped and crossed in front of the chest. The back of the person’s hand is placed on his cheek. The hand must not be released. Now pull the outer leg up on the thigh.
      • Then you pull the person over to you. The upper leg is then aligned so that the thigh is at right angles to the hip.
      • Finally, you tilt your head backwards and open your mouth. The hand on the cheek is then placed so that the airway remains clear.

      CPR: A heart massage can save life. Fainted people who no longer breathe and have no pulse are at risk of cardiac arrest. With the help of a cardiac massage, the chance of survival of the person affected doubles or triples. However, action must then be taken immediately.

      Restocking: The first thing to do is to call the ambulance at 112.

      • The resuscitation, i.e. cardiac massage, must then be started immediately.
      • The patient is placed on his back.
      • The hands are now placed on top of each other, with the heel of your hand you then press vertically on the middle of the chest.
      • The printing depth should be five centimeters and the printing speed 100 times per minute. There should be no breaks.
      • Resuscitation must be carried out until the emergency doctor comes.

      Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation:

      • First you have to check whether breathing noises can still be heard. To do this, simply hold your ear over the unconscious’s nose and mouth. Then one hand is placed on the forehead and the other on the chin tip. The head is now gently stretched back.
      • Now you close your nose and put your lips close to the mouth of the unconscious. You now blow twice in the mouth for a second so that the chest rises. This is followed by 30 pressure massages again.

      medicine cabinet

      Every household should have a small pharmacy in order to have important medical devices ready for illnesses and injuries. Basic equipment is usually sufficient in most emergencies. You can of course add to the selection if necessary, for example with anti-allergy, stomach cramps and cold sores. Important is, that the expiry date of the funds is checked once a year! This is part of it (active ingredients are common examples):

      • Pain reliever and antipyretic (acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol, ibuprofen)
      • Decongestant nasal drops (xylometazoline)
      • Cough medication (for cough irritation with dextrometorphan, for coughing up with acetylcysteine, ambroxol
      • Diarrhea stopper (loperamide, additional electrolyte mixtures to prevent mineral loss)
      • Anti-constipation (bisacodyl, sodium picosulfate, lactulose)
      • Help against heartburn (hydrotalcite, aluminum magnesium silicate, omeprazole)
      • Anti-itch and sunburn cream (hydrocortisone cream)
      • Wound disinfection (povidone iodine solution)
      • Wound and healing ointment (dexpanthenol, zinc oxide, witch hazel ointment)
      • Dressing material:
      • sterile gauze
      • sterile compresses
      • Gauze bandages (6 and 8 cm wide)
      • First aid kit (small, medium, large)
      • elastic bandages (6 and 8 cm wide)
      • Adhesive plasters, 1 pack of plaster strips
      • Rapid wound dressing (6 and 8 cm wide)
    • thermometer
    • bandage scissors
    • Splinter tweezers
    • safety pins
    • Disposable gloves
    • List of emergency addresses:
      • General practitioner / medical emergency service
      • emergency center
      • Drugstore services
      • Medicine cabinet tips:

        • The medication must always be kept dry, dark, cool and childproof. Never in the bathroom, the climate is too humid.
        • Furthermore, the medication should always be kept in the original packaging and with a package insert. You always have all the information ready.
        • The medicine chest should be checked at least once a year. Expired medication must then be disposed of either in the pharmacy or in the household waste. But never tip into the toilet!

        The most important emergency numbers

        You should always have these phone numbers with you in the event of an emergency. To be on the safe side, you can simply save them on your cell phone. emergency calls:

        • 112 – Rescue service, fire brigade (the emergency call applies in all European countries including Russia, Ukraine and Turkey.)
        • 116 117 – Medical on-call service (nationwide)
        • 0551 19240 – Poison emergency call Göttingen responsible for Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein
        • 0800 0022833 – pharmacy emergency call (landline / free)
        • 22833 – Pharmacy emergency call (mobile)
        • 0800 1110111 – Telephone counseling


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        Christina Cherry
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