Bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that is characterized by increased responsiveness of the bronchial system to a wide variety of stimuli (triggers). This so-called "hyperreactivity" causes the bronchial mucous membranes to swell with certain stimuli, for example with psychological stress or overexertion, and local inflammation develops. As a result, the bronchial mucous membranes produce an excessive amount of viscous mucus, which causes parts of the lungs to contract like cramps. The consequences of this narrowing are seizures lasting a few seconds to several hours, which are manifested by the occurrence of shortness of breath. Exhalation is particularly affected, which is why the exhalation is prolonged and a typical whistling and humming sound is produced. In addition, other symptoms such as irritable cough and a viscous sputum occur in an asthma attack. In the period between the seizures, in the so-called intervals, there is usually no asthma-symptoms in front.
Treatment at Asthma @ photo / AntonioGuillem
There are numerous treatment approaches that combat the asthmatic symptoms and should thus achieve freedom from symptoms. A distinction is made between the treatment of an acute asthma attack and the interval therapy between the attacks. Acute therapy is usually characterized by the inhalation of a bronchial spray, which either has a bronchodilator or anti-inflammatory effect. The best-known bronchodilator is the beta-2 sympathomimetic, which loosens the cramped respiratory muscles and thereby widens the airways. Anti-inflammatory drugs Medications from the group of corticosteroids, on the other hand, treat inflammation of the mucous membrane as the actual cause of asthma. They cause the swelling and mucus formation in the respiratory tract of the affected person to decrease and are considered an essential part of long-term therapy.
In addition to preventive and regular use of medication, there are a number of other therapeutic measures that are used as interval therapies to support respiratory function and improve the general condition of those affected. This includes, for example, physiotherapy, which strengthens the respiratory muscles with the help of targeted breathing exercises during the symptom-free period and thus increases breathing performance. Furthermore certain breathing techniques are taught to those affected. Relaxation and meditation exercises, such as autogenic training and yoga, have also proven their worth in asthma therapy, since they can have a positive influence on respiratory function.
Cure and spa application
The various forms of asthma therapy can be done either through an outpatient or inpatient treatment. For one Inpatient treatment is offered by certain specialist and rehabilitation clinics for children or adults who specialize in the treatment of respiratory diseases. These are mainly located in so-called climatic health resorts, especially the mountain regions, such as Bad Reichenhall or Oberstdorf, or the coastal regions, such as Helgoland or the island of Sylt, or the health resorts on the Baltic Sea. These spas are all characterized by a pleasant air quality for asthmatics. However, those rehabilitation measures must be prescribed directly by a pulmonologist and approved by the responsible cost unit (health insurance, accident insurance). If the pension insurance is claimed as the cost bearer, the insured person must apply for the rehabilitation measure themselves, in which the spa application is made. The application is then followed by a report from the family doctor or company doctor or an expert. In addition to the patient’s wishes and location and climate considerations, the professional qualifications of a facility are decisive when choosing a rehabilitation clinic.
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