Landmarks, countries, iran, goruma

Landmarks, countries, iran, goruma


Cities and cultural sites

The Iranian city of Isfahan is the third largest city in the Islamic Republic of Iran – after Tehran and Mashhad. The capital of the province of the same name is probably the most popular tourist destination in the country. The first sight alone will be memorable as you look at this turquoise urban ocean home in the middle of the desert and trace back the story that identifies Isfahan as the former seat of the most important ruling dynasties.
Detailed information about Isfahan is available here >>> at Goruma.

Kashan is located in the province of Isfahan on the northern edge of the Kuhrud Mountains on the edge of the Central Iranian desert – about 190 km south of Tehran. The city has a significant textile industry, including most carpet looms of Iran. Kashan has about 276,000 inhabitants. The city gave the Kaschanteppichen their name. Furthermore, Kashan is one of the centers of production of rose water in Iran.

This former trading post on the Silk Road is one of the holy cities of Islam. It is also (after Teheran) the second largest city in the country and a place of many fantastic sights.
Detailed information about Masachhad can be found here >>> at Goruma.

Persepolis (also Parsa) – the ancient Persian residence city is also called Tacht-e Jammad, throne of Jamshid, and thus honors a former ruler of this name. It once served as one of the proud capitals of the ancient Persian Empire. This “city of the Persians” was founded in 520 BC. by the famous ruler Dareios I (522-485), who thus set an urban empire an urban center that moved under him from Egypt to Asia Minor and the Indus.

Qom is one of the holy cities of Shia. The city is one of the most important pilgrimage sites in Iran, not only because of its many tombs of Persian kings, but also because of the tombs of Shiite saints. Probably the biggest sight of the city is the grave mosque, which was built around 1600 and contains the shrine of Fāteme-ye Ma’sūme, the sister of the 8th Imam ‘Alī ar-Ridā.
Detailed information about Ghom is available here >>> at Goruma.

Shiraz, the capital of the province of Fars, is one of the five largest cities in Iran with around 1.3 million inhabitants. It spreads about 700 km south of Tehran and about 380 km south of Isfahan and lies in the middle of the southern Zagrosgebirge.

The city is known for its garden culture and is therefore also known as the “Garden of Iran”.
Detailed information about Shiras can be found here >>> at Goruma.

Shush (Susa)

Today’s 70,000-inhabitant city Shush (or Susa) was once a significant Elamite city, which in the 3rd millennium BC. BC was founded. Among the most outstanding sights of Susa are v.a. the tomb of the prophet Daniel, who is worshiped by both Jews and Christians as well as Muslims.

If you want to travel to Susa, the Hotel Apadana is recommended at this point ($ 20 per night, including a modest breakfast). Near the hotel are all the major attractions of the city.

Today’s Tehran, Iran’s largest industrial and commercial center, is a vibrant city at the foot of the Elburs Mountains, rising northeast of Tehran and home to the highest mountain in the Middle East, the Demawend (5,610 m). , An incredible network of highways puts the city close to typical Asian metropolises. Numerous museums, art centers, palace complexes and cultural centers give their extra cultural life. The most diverse ethnic groups live here. There are u.a. Armenians, Kurds and Jews gave and give the city a partially multi-religious charm, which is reflected architecturally in various mosques, churches and even synagogues. So did Tehran too "City of the 72 nations" called.
Detailed information about Tehran is available here >>> at Goruma.

Yazd, the capital of the province of the same name, is one of the oldest Iranian cities. Located about 250 km east of Isfahan, the oasis town was built mostly of mud bricks and was once the center of Zoroastrianism.
Detailed information about Yazd is available here >>> at Goruma.


The Golden Triangle stands for the region bordered by the cities of Hamadan, Kermanshah (Bakhtaran) and Khorrambad. This part of the country has a rich history, so remains of 6,000-year-old settlements can be visited.

Tagh-e Bostan
Tagh-e Bostan lures with its reliefs from the Sassanid period, in Hamadan stands an impressive stone lion from the time of Alexander the Great

In Kerman there is a very old bazaar, old baths and the ruins of a citadel

Special buildings and gardens

Amir Chakhmakh complex in Yazd
Although this imposing building is known only as the entrance gate to a bazaar, the Amir Chakhmakh complex is one of Yazd’s most wonderful and significant buildings. He was named after Amir Jalal al-Din Chakhmakh, a governor who governed the affairs of the city in the Yazd of the 15th century. The breathtaking structure is used as a kind of spectacle for mourning spectacles reminiscent of the Ashura, which took place in the market square in front of the complex. The complex, which lies near the mosque of the same name, was once possible to be climbed. Unfortunately, this is no longer possible.

Bagh-e Dolat Abad in Yazd
The Bagh-e Dolat Abad is a beautiful garden that once belonged to the residence of the Persian ruler Karim Khan Zand. The garden was laid out in 1750 and consists of a small pavilion, the interior of which is especially worth seeing for the latticework and stained glass. The pavilion also includes the highest badgir of Iran. He reaches 33 meters in the sky and comes from the 1960s.

Golestan Palace / Peacock Throne in Tehran
This palatial building is the former government palace of the Qajars. It was built at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. The palace is home to a museum showing jewelery, weapons and ceramics. The most famous exhibit is certainly the Takht-e Tawous, the so-called "peacock throne", a throne decorated with gold leaf and over 26,500 precious stones. The founder of the Afsharid dynasty, Nadir Shah, is said to have captured him in 1739 in India and brought him to Tehran. The coronations of the respective Shahs were made on this throne chair.

Shahyad Tower (Azadi Tower) in Tehran
This 45-meter-high tower stands on Azadi Square, from where the Iranian Revolution began in 1978. In 1971, the tower was completed in memory of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire. For the design of the tower Mohandes Hossein Amanat distinguished itself. The Azadi Tower is now considered a landmark of Tehran. It can be reached by a lift that takes you to an observation deck from which you can enjoy a magnificent view over Tehran.

Tomb of Imam Khomeini in Tehran
The mausoleum of the great Shiite cleric, political and spiritual leader of the Islamic Revolution in Iran (1978-1979) is located in southern Tehran. It has four towers, each with a height of 91 meters. The height reflects the age of Khomeini at his death.

33-arch bridge in Isfahan
This bridge, built under Shah Abbas the Great, has over 33 arches. It connects Isfahan with the Armenian district of Jolfa.
At 295 meters, it is by far the longest bridge in Isfahan.

Citadel of Shiras
The imposing and somehow likeable Citadel of Karim Khan spreads in the center of Shiras on the Schohada Square and was built in the 18th century. It covers an area of ​​4,000 square meters and consists of four high walls, which are interrupted by four 14-meter-high corner towers. The entrance gate shows tiles depicting mythical stories during the Qajar period. The Citadel of Karim Khan first served as a government and residential palace, later being used as a prison and mausoleum. Today’s visitors will find in it a museum maintained by the Iranian Heritage Organization.

Korantor in Shiraz
The historic Koran Gate stands at the northeastern entrance of Shiraz. It rises on the road to Isfahan and was built in the 10th century under ‘Adud ad-Dawla. Throughout its centuries, it has been destroyed, rebuilt and partially supplemented – for example, by a small room containing two handwritten Qur’an by Sultan Ibrahim Bin Shahrukh Gurekani, but now on display in the Pars Museum. The present gate has replaced the old one and is a child of the 20th century.
It forms a kind of entrance to the city park, where visitors and visitors relax and have a picnic.

Imperial Bridge in Shuster
The Emperor Bridge in Shuster (Polband-e Quaysar) was built by the captured Romans and is with a length of about 500 m one of the longest bridges in Iran.

Imam Square in Isfahan
Covering more than 500 meters, this 90,000-square-meter square is the city’s most famous square and one of the greatest attractions in the Middle East. He is also one of the largest places on earth. Here are the two magnificent mosques Masjede Emam and Sheikh Lotfollah. Next to it is Ali Qapu on the western side. At the northern end is the Great Bazaar, the Bazaar Qaisarieh. Imam Square was added to the World Heritage List of UNESCO in 1979.

Bāgh-e Eram (Eram Garden) in Shiraz
The Eram Gardens are nothing less than the most famous gardens of Shiraz. It is a botanical garden that goes back to the time of the Seljuk Turks in its history until the 12th century. The main attraction of the garden is the beautiful Qavam house, magnificent and from the 19th century. It spreads out behind an idyllic pool and once belonged to the merchant family Qavam, which also soon gained great influence in politics. The paintings on the lower ceiling of the house were inspired by the Victorian era. The mirrored portal overlooks the Eram Gardens, which are a wonderful oasis of date palms, flowers and fountains. The Qavam house is unfortunately not open to the public.

Zoroastrian sites

Of the Zoroastrianism (also known as Parsism, Zarathustrism or Mazdaism) had been the dominant religion in Persia before the Arabs brought Islam to the country.
This religion originated in today’s Iran and goes to the Prophet Zoroaster (Zartosht, Zaradesht or Zarathustra) back to about the year 550 BC. Was born in Mazar El-sharif (now Afghanistan).
His teaching centered around the idea of ​​a God who is omnipotent and invisible, represented as an eternal flame in Zoroastrian temples. Unfortunately, very little of what Zoroaster wrote survived the centuries.

But has remained in the Avesta respectively. Zendavesta (the holy book of the Zoroastrians) received collection of songs (Gahthas), which probably come from Zoroaster himself or from his disciples.

The basic idea is dualism, the eternal battle between good and evil, between good thoughts (Vohu Mano) and bad (Ahem Nano). These are responsible for day and night, so life and death. Both opposites are in the highest being, the Ahura Mazda, as well as contained in all living things.

The Zoroastrians believe in the purity of the elements, so they may refuse to bury or burn their dead because it will either pollute the earth or pollute the air. Instead, the dead were placed on lonely so-called “Towers of silence“(Dakhmahs) where their bones served the vultures as food. Nowadays, they bury their dead in graves, enclosing them in concrete to prevent the poisoning of the earth.

The most important Zoroastrian pilgrimage site of today’s Iran is Chak Chak (also Pir-e Sabz), a village located in the mountains, about 70 kilometers from Yazd It is located between the 14th and 18th of June, attracting thousands of pilgrims for the annual festival. To reach Chak Chak, it is best to join Yazd on a guided tour for reasons of cost and time, and to join Chak Chak as well Kharanaq and Assr Abad visit.
Currently, such a day trip costs between US $ 13 and US $ 15 per day, depending on the number of travelers. The best one asks in (by the way very recommendable) Silk Road Hotel in Yazd after this tour.

A more comprehensive account of the history and teaching of Zoroastrianism can be found here >>> to inform at Goruma.

Mosques and mausoleums

Goharschad mosque in Mashhad
By far the oldest mosque in Mashhad is an architectural child of the 15th century. It covers an area of ​​about 6,050 square meters, has 28 entrances, two minarets and eight prayer niches. The building bears the name of Goharshad, the daughter of Amir Ghiyase al-Din Tarchan. It was she who once founded the mosque. The building, which has been rebuilt several times in the course of its history, rises in the southern part of the mausoleum of Imam Reza and is completely enclosed by it.

Hazrat-e Masumeh (Holy Shrine of Fatima) in Ghom

The imposing shrine complex for Fatima al Masumeh near the lively Astane Square is the religious heart and spiritual center of Ghom. If Fatima herself is insignificant, her religious worship is due to the fact that Fatima, who died in 817, was the sister of the eighth imam (Imam Reza) and also the daughter of the seventh imam (Musaye Kazem). Fatima al-Masumeh, the “sinless,” wanted to be taken to Ghom to die.

Imam Hassan Mosque in Ghom
The imposing Hassan Mosque is one of the oldest Shiite temples and the most wonderful buildings in Ghom. It rises on Astane Avenue and dates back to the 3rd century AD. But there is no sign of the original structure of the temple.

Tomb of the Saadi in Shiraz
Saadi was a celebrated poet inextricably linked with the name of Shira. We are talking about Saadi, whose mausoleum has become a kind of pilgrimage site. The tomb was restored in 1808 by Karim Khan Zand and in the early 1950s again. The portal is supported by large marble pillars and is very imposing.

Hafezieh – Mausoleum for Hafez in Shiraz
The mausoleum for the poet Hafis (1324-1391) honors Iran’s most beloved and famous poets. He was born in Shiraz and spent his entire life there. The poet was buried in a garden known as the Hafezieh, located northeast of Shiraz. His tomb, rebuilt in the early 1950s, is a magnet for all the people of Iran who visit his tomb to show their respect for his popularity. You reach the tomb via steps and then find an idyllic pavilion, which resembles a dervish hat.

Imām-Reza Complex (Haram) in Mashhad
The main reason, and often the only reason why visitors to the city grape, is this huge complex of buildings (Haram), which covers an incredible area of ​​almost 600,000 square meters and is growing steadily. The largest sanctuary in the complex is the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of the Twelver Shiites. He is the only imam who has been buried on Iranian soil. Reza was reportedly poisoned by Shiite sources in 818 at the behest of the caliph al-Ma’mūn. After Imam Reza was buried next to Hārūn ar-Rashīd’s grave, the previously insignificant city of Sanābād was given the name Mashhad ar-Rida, which means “place of the martyr”. At the end of the 9th century, the tomb was given a dome, and numerous buildings and bazaars were built around it.

Jamkaran Mosque at Ghom
Jamkaran is a village in the Qanavat district and about six kilometers away from Ghom. There rises the Jamkaran Mosque, a major pilgrimage site for Shiite Muslims. The local faith wants the Messianic 12th Imam (Imam Mahdi) to appear in the mosque one day and say prayers. Especially on Tuesdays, large groups of believers gather to pray in the Jamkaran Mosque and ask the 12th Imam for help.

Masjed-e Jameh (Friday Mosque) in Yazd
The imposing assembly mosque of Yazd dates back to the 14th century and is a fine example of Persian mosaic and architecture. The mosque has two minarets, the highest in Iran. The façade of the portal is also striking: it is decorated all over with blue tiles in particular. In the mosque itself spreads a wonderful cream, a courtyard with arcades. Masjed-e Jameh also has an altar chamber decorated with faience mosaics. The mosque is so famous in Iran that it can even be seen on the front of the Iranian 200-rial banknote.

Mosque Masjid-e Imam in Isfahan
The mosque stands at the southern end of Imam Square and was built during the Safavid period. The mosque is an outstanding example of Islamic architecture in Iran. Together with the Imam Square, it is on UNESCO’s World Cultural Heritage List. Their construction began in 1611, but it was completed only 27 years later. The mosque’s portal measures 27 meters in height and is crowned by two minarets, each 42 meters high. Behind the gate stands the main dome (52 m high) of the prayer hall.

Shaikh Lotfullah Mosque in Isfahan
This little mosque is a masterpiece of Iranian Safavid architecture. It is located at the eastern end of Imam Square. It was built in 1615 on the orders of Shah Abbas I, who dedicated it to his stepfather Sheikh Lotfollah As an architect distinguished Muhammad Reza ibn Ustad Hosein Banna Isfahani. He finished the mosque in 1618. The tiles in the dome change color from cream to pink, depending on how the lighting conditions are. The mosque has unusually no courtyard and no minaret. Once she became "women’s mosque" because there was a tunnel that led from the mosque to the Ali Qapu Palace and allowed the women of the old dynasties to enter the mosques without being seen by the public.

Friday Mosque (Masjid-e Jomeh) in Isfahan
This mosque at the northeastern end of a bazaar was built around the year 700. The church is a wonderful example of the combination of Islamic and Persian architecture. The main prayer room of the mosque dates from the time of the Abbasids or Bujiden and is supported by 306 columns.

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