Lymphoma cancer, also called malignant lymphoma, is one malignant disease of the lymphatic system, which includes the lymph nodes, spleen and thymus. Lymph gland cancer starts from lymphocytes, white blood cells with immune defense functions, and can be broken down into two large groups Classify: Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). During the Hodgkin’s disease (Hodgkin’s lymphoma) is a clearly defined clinical picture, one differentiates in the Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma numerous sub-forms according to the course characteristics and cells of origin.
Causes and Frequency of Lymphoma Cancer
Make malignant lymphomas around 5 percent of all cancers out. On one Hodgkin’s lymphoma fall ill in Germany about 2,000 people annually, while on Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, predominantly in the less vicious and slow-moving forms, about 12,500 people per year fall ill.
The Causes of Lymph Gland Cancer are largely unexplained. In some forms, however, the involvement of viruses is discussed. At NHL, ionizing radiation is one of the causes discussed.
Symptoms of malignant lymphoma
Both groups have lymphatic cancer painless lymph node enlargement the most common signs. In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, these usually occur above the diaphragm. In addition, malignant lymphoma can result from the following general signs of disease comment:
- performance degradation
- increased body temperature
- night sweats
Diagnosis of lymphoma cancer
The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma and the assignment to one of the disease groups can only be made by Collection and histological examination one or more affected lymph nodes or from Tissue samples from other organs be put.
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They are as diverse as these cells sub tissues of lymph gland cancer. Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be distinguished from all other lymphomas by the appearance of a special type of cell, the Sternberg giant cells. Individual forms of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma first affect the skin or mucous membrane of the digestive tract, especially the stomach.
The exact determination of the disease and the Spread, the stage of the disease, is important for treatment planning. To do this After diagnosis of the fine tissue, further examinations required. These include, among others
- the chest x-ray,
- computer tomography and ultrasound examination of the abdomen,
- the examination of a bone marrow sample,
- the skeletal scintigraphy
- and possibly taking tissue samples from the liver.
Treatment of malignant lymphoma
Treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Hodgkin’s lymphoma have a uniform distribution pattern. The Treatment of this group of lymph gland cancer is based on the stage of the disease – localized illness or infestation of several body regions and possibly of organs outside the lymphatic system – and always aims for permanent healing.
In localized stadiums Irradiation of the affected lymph node groups takes place without an increased risk of relapse increased risk of relapse and involvement of lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm chemotherapy and radiation, at even more extensive disease especially chemotherapy, possibly with additional radiation to lymph node regions.
Based on recent knowledge, too in early stages of the disease a short Chemotherapy recommended before radiotherapy. Hodgkin’s lymphomas respond very well to combination chemotherapy. If the success is still not so good, high-dose chemotherapy may be an option.
Treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
The staging of the Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is comparable to that of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Here too The treatment is based on the stage and also on the degree of malignancy or typical course characteristics: rapid or slow progression.
Both slowly growing, so-called indolent (formerly low malignant) Forms of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma radiation therapy takes place in the localized stages, which can lead to permanent healing. at extensive disease chemotherapy is used that can at least slow down the course. On new therapy approach is with a Immunotherapy with the antibody rituximab pursued, which can be used in the event of non-response to chemotherapy. High-dose therapy is also experimental stem cell.
Aggressive (previously highly malignant) lymphomas progress rapidly untreated, but respond better to chemotherapy than low malignant forms, so that combination chemotherapy is used here at all stages, possibly with subsequent radiation. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy has also proven itself in aggressive malignant lymphomas.
Patients who are in a transplantable condition (biological age up to 65 years) and who have risk factors for an unfavorable course of the disease should definitely be treated in a study with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.
Possible side effects of lymphoma cancer treatment
especially the Combination of intensive chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which is used in Hodgkin’s disease, hides itself a cancer risk. Therefore, patients must be examined over the long term in order to be able to detect and treat a possible second cancer ten years and more early after the first treatment.
With treatment in younger years, the intensive chemotherapy to infertility to lead. When irradiated, an attempt is made to protect the gonads. Sometimes women come through it prematurely into menopause. Men can freeze sperm before treatment.
Follow-up after treatment for lymphoma cancer
After successful treatment of lymphatic cancer are special Follow-up examinations every few months in the first two years necessary to recognize relapses early on the one hand and possible consequences of the treatment on the other hand. But also after the year will in somewhat larger intervals check-ups carried out. These include
- the physical exam,
- the blood test,
- chest x-ray and
- the ultrasound examination of the abdomen,
- and further examinations if necessary.
Treatment of lymphatic cancer in the event of relapse
If a patient with lymph gland cancer relapses, the disease occurs chemotherapy again. In this situation, one often becomes one today High-dose chemotherapy with subsequent retransmission before the treatment of blood stem cells taken (autologous stem cell transplant). Low-grade NHL is followed by further chemotherapy or, in certain cases, one Antibody immunotherapy for use.
Chances of cure in malignant lymphoma
at Hodgkin’s disease (Hodgkin’s lymphoma) are the prognosis in all stages very good. Both aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas is the probability of healing from chemotherapy and various responses risk factors depending on the low-malignant forms on the stage of spread at diagnosis.
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