Orthodontics (orthodontics): What is functional orthodontics?
What are the tasks of orthodontics??
Orthodontics in dentistry includes the Diagnosis and treatment as well as the prevention of dental and jaw malpositions.
Orthodontists are dentists with a subject-specific training as a “Specialist Dentist or Orthodontic Specialist”.
Tooth and jaw malposition in a patient: due to displaced wisdom teeth upper and lower jaw no longer fit together. The “wrong bite” caused unilateral tinnitus and migraine attacks.
After removal of all wisdom teeth, a diagnostic splint therapy (DROS®) and combined orthodontic and restorative treatment, the patient was symptom-free.
Source: © GZFA
How important is tooth positioning for oral health?
Misalignments of teeth and jaws should be treated, because they are usually not just an aesthetic problem. Too narrow or crooked teeth can also be Bite, speech and chewing function and affect overall oral health.
Because tight or nested teeth are difficult to clean. In the case of protruding incisors, when the mouth can no longer be completely closed and the mucous membranes dry out, saliva’s self-cleaning function is also made more difficult. Badly cleaned teeth are more prone to tooth decay. The formation of dental plaque (plaque) is considered to cause severe inflammation of the gingiva (gingivitis) and the dental bed (periodontitis). Often, the wisdom teeth lead to a malposition of the anterior teeth, push them forward, a false bite arises. When, in these cases, wisdom teeth are surgically removed by surgery, describe, inter alia, the guidelines of dental societies, such as the DGZMK.
What role does the function play in orthodontics??
Some malformations of the teeth are the result of abnormal development of the jaw and are often already applied in the deciduous dentition. Unplated teeth or tooth breakage disorders have a genetic cause. On "Over or under bite" is often inherited, whereas the "open bite" often caused by intense thumb sucking.
Tooth and jaw malpositions are not always genetic, but caused to a large extent by malfunction, resulting from the use or movement of teeth and jaw joints. Thus, functional orthodontics occupies an increasingly important role in the treatment. Diverse interactions exist between malformations of the jaw (dysgnathia) and periodontal disease, which requires interdisciplinary cooperation between orthodontics and general dentistry or periodontology.
Patient with severe tooth inflammation (periodontitis) and tooth loss due to tooth and jaw malpositions.
The aesthetic and functional restoration of the chewing function is only possible in combination with a professional oral hygiene concept, orthodontic treatment plus implant prosthetics.
Source: © GZFA
What does functional orthodontics mean?
Functional orthodontics always assesses the correct functional tooth position in relation to the physiological TMJ position. However, if the teeth of the upper and lower jaws are “regulated” regardless of the position of the temporomandibular joints, this can lead to TMJ discomfort with health effects on the whole body.
An important prerequisite for a healthy, even dentition is the occlusion, the harmonious interlocking of the teeth of upper and lower jaw in physiological TMJ position. If the occlusion is disturbed because teeth are crooked, standing too close and obstructing each other or grinding off, individual teeth will go through Early or early contact lack loaded. The result is damage to the teeth themselves or to the periodontium. Through nocturnal teeth grinding / bruxism it can also become a Loss of tooth substance With loss of bite height come – the teeth are getting shorter.
The surrounding muscles try to adapt or compensate for these deformities. If this is no longer possible, it will happen Massive tensions of the chewing, face and head muscles with overloading or compression of the temporomandibular joints. The wrong bite can trigger a variety of CMD symptoms that cause pain to the head, jaw, face, shoulder and back.
Malocclusions, a so-called. Wrong bite can be the cause of muscle tension, tinnitus and a one-sided headache.
A remedy for this is the CMD treatment with the DROS® splint therapy.
Source: © GZFA
For diagnostics and therapy “functional orthodontics” is used. Initially, a functional analysis is carried out for the diagnosis and models of upper and lower jaw are made. The Tooth position is then assessed in a chewing simulator, the so-called articulator. This simulates the position and functionality of the teeth as a function of the position and functionality of the temporomandibular joints. Only this approach reflects the actual bite conditions in the patient’s mouth.
The subsequent diagnostic splint therapy then determines exactly the malpositions of the teeth and the physiological TMJ position. After stabilizing this position, the dentist or orthodontist can now use a wax model of the upper and lower jaw (wax-up) to determine exactly which measures are necessary to permanently achieve the determined tooth and jaw status.
If z. B. a lot of tooth substance was lost, it must be rebuilt, a precontact is corrected by a Einschleifmaßnahme. In some cases, orthodontic adjustments must be made to restore the “right bite” functionally and aesthetically.
Malocclusion in a patient: Although the gums and the dental bed are inflammation-free, there are CMD complaints: muscle tension in the jaw and neck area, jaw joint cracking and tinnitus.
With the help of the seven-week DROS® splint therapy and a functional orthodontic treatment following, complete freedom from symptoms could be achieved.
Source: © GZFA
Orthodontic treatment – “tooth regulation”
In orthodontics one differentiates the orthodontic Tooth regulation in children and adolescents as well as the orthodontic Adult dentistry. Various techniques and equipment are used, i.a. for removable braces or fixed braces such as e.g. Brackets and transparent rails, so-called Aligner.
Orthodontic dental and jaw regulations can be the Improve biting and chewing ability, facilitate the cleaning of the teeth and help to avoid tooth and temporomandibular joint disease.
The devices used should with gentle pressure and tensile forces bring about the desired tooth or jaw position, which can often take many months or even several years.
A prerequisite for successful orthodontic treatment is a detailed aesthetic and functional treatment planning plus functional analysis, regular follow-up appointments in orthodontics practice and, above all, the perfect cooperation of the patient through thorough dental and oral hygiene.
Extreme anomalies of the jawbone, such as a protruding or overly large mandible and a cleft lip and palate in the infant, are often surgically corrected, usually in combination with surgery prior to orthodontic treatment.
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