Man is brutal
What is certain, however, is that man has both good and evil within him. It is obvious that it makes more sense for human society to give priority to the good, that is, to treat each other peacefully. Everyone benefits from this because this is the only way to build a stable and future-oriented system.
However, these social values are not set in stone, but only a mirror of their time. You are changeable with it.
Ethics guides people to use their minds to orientate their actions according to moral principles. You could also say that ethics provides people with an orientation in everyday life with other people: what it’s right, what is wrong?
The practical implementation of theoretical considerations was particularly important to Aristotle. To make the right and wrong decisions, ethics provides two different tools, among other things.
First, utilitarianism, according to which an action is good or right when it is useful.
This contrasts with deontology, according to which it doesn’t matter what is right or wrong. Because there are actions that are defined as wrong from the start and therefore must not be carried out.
All moral values have one thing in common: they are, without exception, abstract conventions of a community. Many of these values can also be found in the different religions. Here the good in the form of a god watches over the actions of men.
In the case of Christianity, for example, good has a direct opponent: the devil. He is the personification of evil, the kingdom of which is hell. A place of eternal torment and damnation that is given to sinners. In other words, those who violated Christian values during their lifetime.
In order for believers to live a godly life, they must adhere to Christian morals. That is why God Himself gave them the Ten Commandments. Among other things, they say that it is not permitted to steal or kill. But even without a religious superstructure, these two do "laws" Sense. The first people who lived in larger groups understood that.
Grammar of morality
The natural sciences have also tried to fathom good and evil. At the end of the 19th century, the Italian prison doctor Cesare Lombroso examined the skull shape of serious criminals and used it as a guide "homo delinquens" from. He believed that criminals were born with evil, and that you could already tell from the outside.
Typical features of the born criminal are a huge lower jaw, large eye sockets and a fleeing forehead. He also believed that he could differentiate between sex offenders having overgrown lips, while thieves had crooked noses. A few decades later, the National Socialists were able to gain some of this theory.
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