Money is scarce for many students – so they can hardly make ends meet without a student job. Students can spread a job over the year or work during the semester break. So that the financing of your studies is secure, job about two thirds of all students: You wait in pubs, walk in costumes through pedestrian zones, help your professor as a research assistant or work as a student assistant in a company.
What employment relationships are possible during your studies?
If you are enrolled as a student, you can work as a mini-jobber, holiday jobber or working student. However, different rules apply to the different employment relationships with regard to earnings limits and working hours. At a Mini job on a 450 euro basis earnings are limited to this money. However, more can be earned as a working student. The following applies to the pursuit of marginal employment or a job as a working student: Only reduced social security contributions are due. Students can also earn money for their studies with short-term employment or through freelance work on a fee basis.
Money is scarce for many students – so they can hardly make ends meet without a student job.
TIP: Outside of a part-time job, there are other ways that students can make money quickly can earn. For example with online surveys, the sale of things that are no longer used via classified ads platforms or as app jober.
If a person is enrolled at a university, he is a student. Then he can work a maximum of 19 hours a week on the side. If the weekly working time is over 19 hours, he will no longer be considered a student despite enrollment.
How much can a student earn?
In order to maintain student status, not only the number of hours per week is limited, but also income. Basically, a student is allowed 450 euros a month to earn. Then the employer takes care of the social security and pays the flat-rate contributions. The student does not have to pay income tax. If the student stays within this earnings limit, the number of jobs in addition to studying does not matter.
A student works as a working student, the earnings limit doesn’t matter. For this, the working student rule applies: if the semester, the working student is allowed to study maximum 20 hours a week work. During the semester break there is lecture-free time. Then the working student is allowed to work more. There may be further exceptions for late and night work and weekend work.
Anyone receiving BAföG should note the earnings limit:
Anyone who receives government funding like Bafög as a student should make sure that they do not generate too much income. As soon as the BAföG recipient earns more than 406 euros, the funding will be reduced accordingly. However, the calculation does not count the monthly salary, but the total income in the approval period. This may not exceed a total of 4880 euros. If the BAföG is received for less than twelve months, the permitted earnings limit is also lower. Child benefit is not counted as income. A BAföG advance can also be applied for under specific conditions.
Rights and duties as a student worker
Whoever is employed as a student, applies to them same rights and obligations as for all employees. You are entitled to a minimum wage, continued wages in the event of illness, maternity leave, paid leave, occupational safety and health and regular breaks. There are exceptions for certain internships and underage students. Who the rights in claim takes, must also observe the obligations. The student employee must be reported to the tax office by the employer. However, since an income of up to 8472 euros per year remains tax-free, one is In this case, tax returns as a student are voluntary.
Insurance in student jobs
Anyone who studies and is younger than 25 years is also insured free of charge through the parents’ health insurance. If the membership is to remain in the family insurance, an additional income of a maximum of 405 euros per month allowed. Since the lump sum for advertising costs can be deducted from income, an income of up to EUR 488.33 per month is possible – and the free family insurance is not endangered. If the student earns more in his part-time job, the reduced student contribution is then due, which is usually the case about 80 euros.
Short-term full employment for students
A student can work full-time for a certain period of time. This is possible in the lecture-free period of the year, concerns seasonal activities or the use at trade fair events. However, the activity must not exceed the short-term, it must be limited in time. In the case of short-term full-time employment, this may not exceed fifty working days. In a week of five working days are like this two months full-time employment possible for students. For this period of the year, the employer does not have to pay social security contributions. However, the student is subject to income tax liability for this activity and has to pay corresponding contributions.
Work independently as a student during your studies
A student can of course also do self-employment and work. If he works as a freelancer, as is the case with journalists, he does not need a business license – otherwise he does. Paragraph 11 of the Trade Tax Act regulates trade tax liability. If sales plus taxes exceed the total earnings limit The student is subject to VAT at 17,500 euros. All the rules are in the sales tax law, paragraph 19 regulates the taxation of small businesses. If the student earns more, the correct VAT rate must be shown on the invoices and paid to the tax office. If you need a trade license for your self-employed activity, you may have to pay trade tax. The current limit is 24,500 euros per year.
Suitable for the subject: The internship for students
Depending on the chosen subject, internships often have to be completed during the course. Basically, the same rules apply to the amount of earnings for an internship as for a regular student job. For example, this affects the amount of earnings: In principle, the minimum wage for students must be paid. However, voluntary internships that last less than three months and compulsory internships are exempt from this regulation. Although companies can voluntarily pay a fee for these jobs, they are not obliged to do so. If this salary is less than EUR 450 per month, there are no duties or taxes to be paid. Those who earn between 450 and 850 euros are subject to the reduced levies of the sliding scheme.
With a midi job while studying within the earnings limit
Anyone who earns more than the 450 euros allowed in a mini job and stays below the earnings limit of 850 euros has a so-called midi job. This also means that the student as an employee must pay a share of the social security. The amount of the employee’s share depends on gross earnings. However, the so-called working student privilege applies to students: work no more than 20 hours a week, you do not need to pay health insurance contributions.
For a summer job during the semester break or for jobs limited to three months, for evening and night work and weekend work, the same exceptions apply as for regular student jobs. On the other hand, students have to pay a reduced share of the pension insurance. This depends on the amount of earnings and the full 9.35 percent contribution payments are only made at 850 euros reached.
Mid-job or mini-job? Which is more advantageous?
A midi job not only earns more than a mini job, it also offers other significant advantages for students: those who practice a midi job are fully covered by social security. If the employment relationship lasts longer than one year or if the student reaches twelve months of employment, it automatically arises Entitlement to unemployment benefits. Anyone who gets sick during the student job has one Right to sickness benefit. Thanks to the compulsory insurance in the statutory pension insurance, the later pension entitlement increases. Anyone who works in a midi job and becomes pregnant gets Maternity benefit: That is already with earnings of little more than 450 euros at about 13 euros per calendar day.
Alternatives to student jobs
If you prefer to concentrate on your studies and don’t want to worry about earning a salary for student jobs, there are other alternatives to finance your life and studies besides your job:
Companies, foundations and associations pay scholarships to selected students. The best-known foundations either belong to the big parties or are close to the churches. If you want to receive such a scholarship, you have to apply to the foundation and demonstrate that you are socially or politically committed and perform well in the study subjects.
Scholarship holders can up to 585 euros a month expect support. There are also a large number of other institutions where students can get a scholarship or support. Most of the scholarships that students can apply for are listed on the website of the Federal Association of German Foundations.
TIP: Vexcash offers an unusual funding with the "Bad Grades" scholarship. Students with below-average grades in at least one subject can receive a grant of 6,000 euros.
Banks offer students the opportunity to take out student loans. If this contract is concluded, the bank transfers the previously agreed amount monthly. The entire study can be financed with this. However, since the student loan must then be repaid with interest, it only makes sense to use it as an additional source of income use.
The lower the amount paid out by the bank, the less you have to pay back later. A student loan usually takes the form of an installment loan and is in three maturity phases divided: During the study, the student receives his money from the bank every month. Then there is a rest phase: the loan does not yet have to be repaid during this time, so that the graduate can look for work in peace. In the subsequent repayment phase, the debts are repaid to the bank in monthly installments.
Education funds can serve as alternatives to student loans. With an education fund, the bank also pays an agreed amount to the student. However, the amount to be repaid after graduation depends on the amount of earnings: The amount of the repayment is not determined in advance, but is calculated from the subsequent salary. This funding can therefore be lower or higher. Those who earn a lot have to pay back higher contributions. On the other hand, those who do not earn so well at the start of their careers pay back lower contributions to the bank.
Anyone wishing to study a semester abroad can receive support from the EU’s Erasmus program. This program involves 2,000 universities in 31 European countries. Students can receive an average funding for three to twelve months 200 euros a month to get.
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