Teeth: function, structure, diseases
If you do not properly care for your teeth, you can develop tooth decay or periodontitis. By brushing your teeth thoroughly, you stay healthy. Sometimes the dentist has to intervene anyway
Essential for dental health: brushing your teeth every day
Brilliant white teeth can bewitch – in contrast to a crooked yellowish bit. In order for the teeth to grow straight, many a child has to wear braces as a child. Adults should take good care of their teeth by, among other things, brushing their teeth several times a day, using dental floss and possibly interdental brushes. In order to counteract dental problems in good time, it is advisable to have the dentist checked regularly by the dentist.
The function of the teeth
When an adult’s dentition is complete and the wisdom teeth have formed, it comprises 32 teeth. They are mainly used to shred the food. There are four incisors in the front of the jaw, which can bite off food, such as a piece of bread, particularly well thanks to their sharp edges. To the left and right next to it sits a canine tooth, which fixes the bitten bread in its mouth with its special shape.
If the bite is on the palate, the small molars, the premolars, are used. They chop the food between their hollows and humps. The large molars behind it refine this process. It creates a kind of porridge that we can swallow. The wisdom teeth grow up in the back of the jaw – but not in every person.
Dentists name the individual teeth according to an internationally standardized system. You divide the upper and lower jaw into semicircles and these into quadrants again. Each tooth is given two digits, through which it can be clearly assigned.
Structure of the tooth
The tooth consists of a crown, neck and root. The crown is the visible part, on the tooth neck the tooth disappears under the gums. The root is anchored in the jaw. The part that directly surrounds the tooth from the height of the gums is the tooth holding device. The outermost layer of the tooth is the enamel – the hardest substance in our body. It mainly consists of a calcium salt. Acids damage the enamel. For example, they arise when you eat something sugary. Bacteria that live in the mouth feed on the sugar and release acids when it is used.
The layer beneath the enamel is called the dentin. It is also mainly calcium. Processes of certain cells as well as tiny nerve fibers run through the dentin and perceive stimuli such as cold or warmth, but also the dental drill. The fine fibers transmit the signal to the pulp. It is composed of, among other things, nerve fibers, blood vessels and connective tissue. The marrow provides the tooth with nutrients, but also forwards pain stimuli to the central nervous system.
Toothache can indicate that the tooth is diseased. Many people suffer from tooth decay, others from periodontitis or inflamed gums. It is not uncommon for the doctor to treat carious teeth by removing the diseased part and replacing it with a filling. If larger parts of the tooth are affected, a denture is sometimes necessary.
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