With the first period, fertility begins in a girl. If everything goes according to plan, there will be a menstrual period once a month. The female cycle runs in phases. A good understanding of the processes in the woman’s body makes family planning easier.
Usually girls get it between 10 and 15 years their period for the first time and are therefore sexually mature. The first day of your menstrual period is considered the beginning of a cycle. Accordingly, it ends the day before the next menstruation.
The length of the woman’s cycle can be very different: for some it only lasts 21, for others up to 35 days. On average, the Menstruation every 28 days and lasts three to seven days. During this time, a woman loses about 50 to 100 milliliters of blood.
Female cycle: phases
The female cycle is basically divided into four phases:
- proliferative phase
- luteal phase
In this process, the body first on a pregnancy prepared and fertilizable. To do this, an egg cell is transported into the ovary and uterine lining is built up.
If the egg cell is not fertilized, the body ends the woman’s cycle and the body breaks down the endometrium. The female cycle starts over.
Proliferation phase: The first phase in the female cycle
The cycle begins with the so-called proliferation phase. At the beginning of this phase, the body builds up tissue that closes the cervix in the form of a mucus plug. This is to prevent bacteria from entering the uterus from the vagina. Estrogens formed in the ovary – female hormones – then ensure that the endometrium is regenerated.
If fertilization takes place, this is important so that the Egg well later in the uterus can.
What is ovulation?
At the same time, the messenger stimulates FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) the maturation of a new egg cell. For this, an egg vial, also called follicle, grows in the ovaries, which is filled with water and contains an egg cell. The amount of fluid in the follicle increases steadily in the following days. Then take also the Estrogens and ensure that the cervical mucus liquefies. This makes it permeable to sperm. This process is important because if the cervix were closed, the sperm could not fertilize the egg.
There is also another substance, the luteinizing hormone (LH). It causes the now bulging follicle to burst and release the egg into the fallopian tube – so-called ovulation or ovulation takes place. The egg cell then migrates over the fallopian tube towards the uterus.
The ovulation phase in the middle of the female cycle ‘
Ovulation usually takes place in the center of the woman’s cycle, 10 to 14 days before the next menstrual period. In the case of an extended cycle of, for example, 30 days, it shifts back a little and lies between the 16th to the 20th day of the cycle. After ovulation, the egg cell can only be fertilized for a short time: The time window is 12 to 24 hours. In this phase, the cervix opens slightly so that the sperm reach the egg cell.
The luteal phase: development of the luteal body
From the remnant of the follicle that once contained the egg cell, a so-called yellow body develops, which in turn produces the hormone progesterone. This hormone is very important during the onset of pregnancy. Among other things, it causes no further eggs to mature for the time being.
However, there are two scenarios in the last third of the female cycle:
- The egg cell is fertilized or not. If fertilization has taken place, the progesterone level is maintained. The fertilized egg cell migrates into the uterus and nests there.
- If the egg cell has not been fertilized, the body has to prepare the female genital organs for a new cycle: within the next ten days, the yellow body regresses and no further progesterone is produced.
Onset of menstruation
The upper layers of the lining of the uterus are also broken down and rejected. The next menstruation begins. The body excretes not only blood, but also secretions and the remains of the mucous membrane through the menstrual period. Then the female cycle can start again.
Signals for the different female cycle phases
The fertile days are particularly important for natural family planning. Because pregnancy can only occur if sexual intercourse takes place at this time. To determine the individual phases, observe the following criteria:
- body temperature
- cervical mucus
- Condition of the cervix
Based on the body temperature and the change in the cervical mucus, a woman can determine her fertile days quite well. The condition of the cervix is rather assessed by the gynecologist.
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