U examinations: then your child must go to the doctor

This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.

U examinations are a series of different check-ups of the child that take place at specified times. The aim is to recognize and treat diseases or developmental disorders at an early stage. Read everything about the U-examinations, what age they should take place and what their results mean.

What are underground investigations?

U-exams are different checkups in the child. The goal of the preventive medical check-up is the early detection of various diseases and developmental disorders that can be cured or at least alleviated by early therapy. For this purpose, the doctor examines the child at various times using various tests.

The results and findings of a U-examination are documented in a yellow children’s examination booklet or preventive booklet. So the pediatrician has a good overview of the child’s development so far at every appointment – parents should therefore bring the booklet with them to all U-examinations. The mother receives the yellow notebook after the birth. She also receives a green checkbook, in which the findings of additional preventive examinations are recorded.

U-examinations: compulsory or voluntary?

Since 2008 and 2009, some of the U examinations (U1 to U9) have been mandatory in Bavaria, Hesse and Baden-Württemberg. In Bavaria, parents even have to provide proof of the preventive check-ups they have made when they register their child for daycare or school. The obligation to visit a doctor should not only lead to being able to recognize diseases as early as possible; cases of neglect and child abuse should also be discovered more quickly.

In the other federal states, sub-examinations in children are not mandatory. Parents who do not bring their children to the preventive medical check-up receive a written invitation to the U-check-up. However, if they do not go to the pediatrician within four weeks, the youth or health authorities will be informed.

Which U examinations are there??

There are a total of twelve different child examinations up to the age of ten; for older children and adolescents, the so-called J-examinations are due. Every check-up includes different tests. Common to all is the determination of weight and height. The costs for the U examinations U1 to U9 (including U7a) are covered by both the statutory and private health insurance companies. The following examinations, i.e. the U10 and U 11, have not yet been reimbursed by all health insurance companies.

U-examinations: baby and toddler (U1 to U9)

Immediately after birth, the first of the U examinations takes place in the hospital with the U1. Here the doctor also gives the baby the important vitamin K drops. The U2 also often takes place in the hospital – depending on when the mother is released from the clinic.

Further information: U1 examination

To find out what the doctor does during the U1 examination and what the vitamin K is all about, read the article U1 examination.

Further information: U2 examination

You can read about when the U2 examination will be taken and which tests your child can expect in the article U2 examination.

The other U examinations no longer take place in the hospital. The parents have to make an appointment with the pediatrician. Since the U examinations are sometimes time-consuming, it is advisable to set the dates early.

Further information: U3 examination

When the U3 examination takes place and why it is so important, read the article U3 examination.

Further information: U4 examination

You can find out what the pediatrician examines in the U4 check-up in the article U4 examination.

Further information: U5 examination

You can find out when your child has to go to the U5 examination and what the doctor is examining in the article U5 examination.

Further information: U6 examination

You can read about why the U6 examination is important and what diseases the doctor is testing your child for in the article U6 examination.

Further information: U7 examination

You can read about when the U7 examination will be taken and which tests your child can expect in the article U7 examination.

Further information: U8 examination

If you want to know how the U8 examination works, read the article U8 examination.

Further information: U9 examination

You can find out what the pediatrician checks for the U9 examination and when it takes place in the entry U9 examination.

U-examinations: school-age child (U10 and U11)

Two additional U-examinations are currently available for children from the age of seven: the U10 at the age of seven to eight years and the U11 at the age of nine to ten. They cover the provision of primary school age.

Further information: U10 examination

You can find out how the U10 examination differs from the other preventive examinations in the entry U10 examination.

Further information: U11 examination

You can read about when the U11 examination is made and how it works in the article U11 examination.

U-examinations: overview

This is being investigated:

right after birth

  • general health and organ condition
  • Umbilical cord blood oxygen content.
  • also: vitamin K administration

3rd to 10th day of life

  • Blood test for metabolic diseases and hormone disorders
  • Nervous system and reflexes
  • also: vitamin K administration

4th to 5th week of life

  • body functions
  • hearing
  • childish reflexes
  • Ultrasound examination of the hip joint

3rd to 4th month of life

  • Hearing and eyesight
  • Responsiveness and agility

6th to 7th month of life

  • Hearing and eyesight
  • Squint test with eye mirror
  • agility

10th to 12th month of life

  • Agility and body control
  • linguistic development
  • behavior

21st to 24th month of life

  • spiritual development
  • baby teeth

34th to 36th month of life

  • language development
  • social skills and behavior

46th to 48th month of life

  • organ functions
  • Hearing and eyesight
  • language development
  • body control
  • Blood pressure measurement and urine test

60th to 64th month of life

  • Hearing and eyesight
  • language development
  • posture
  • mental and social development

7th to 8th year of life

  • motor development and behavior

9th to 10th year of life

  • school performance
  • social development and behavior
  • Advice on nutrition, sports, stress and media

What do the results of underground investigations mean?

The child’s blood is already examined for congenital metabolic and hormonal disorders in the U2. This is particularly important because these congenital diseases urgently need to be treated as early as possible using a special diet or hormone therapy. Otherwise the child is at risk of permanent damage.

The doctor uses various tests to check the child’s age-appropriate development. The tests are often playful, so that the child is motivated to participate. If there is any abnormality in the child’s hearing or eyesight in the U-examinations, the pediatrician usually transfers the child to a specialist, i.e. a ENT specialist or pediatric ophthalmologist. The child may be given glasses or a hearing aid.

If developmental disorders appear in the child, it is important to support the child in a targeted manner. Possible measures are occupational therapy or speech therapy (speech therapy). In some cases, the doctor also recommends visiting a special kindergarten. Many of the easier developmental disorders can be compensated for through practice. The success of the therapy measures initiated can then be seen in the course of the others U examinations check.


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Christina Cherry
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