|duration:||about 4 hours (spread over a period of 6 to 8 weeks)|
|Origin:||La main à la pâte, Paris|
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The preschool offers a variety of opportunities to actively discover the world and present what has been discovered. You can on "experienced" Recourse to experience and inevitably promotes sensory exploration of the environment. This type of world exploration is the guideline for the following activities. Based on individual perceptions, the senses should be activated and the information processed more efficiently.
The senses are examined using a fruit basket. The children recognize, compare and sort the fruits using criteria that are linked to their senses: color, shape, size, taste,. They connect the respective senses with the corresponding sense organs. They name and describe the fruits and in this way expand their vocabulary.
Fig. 1: Fruit basket
Organization of activities
Fig. 2: The world of the senses and what you can learn from it.
These activities for the 3 to 4 year olds should extend over a period of about 6 to 8 weeks, whereby the season can be chosen freely. The teacher simply adapts the selection of fruit to the season. The fruits can either be brought along by her or bought by the entire class at a joint market visit (at the end of the school year, if the children have greater skills, a small one can "survey" or a small one "interview" take place with the fruit seller; the children ask him questions – which were prepared together with the teacher – about his job, the fruit and its origin).
The times in which the entire class works together alternate with times in which work is carried out individually or in small groups (project work  with homogeneous / heterogeneous groups, under instruction / independently).
The children can develop their sensory abilities by examining the different fruits. You can observe, sort, cut, try the fruits. and finally compare raw and cooked fruit. The children familiarize themselves with the topic, reuse what they learned in the previous activity, gradually structure their knowledge, knowledge and expertise.
Bringing the entire class together at the beginning and at the end of each activity serves to put the experience into words, to anchor it in the memory and to take into account the knowledge of each individual. The creation of posters that were created in group work or with the entire class also support the learning process.
The examinations performed by the children can take 15 to 20 minutes and allow each child to progress at their pace. If several activities are offered in parallel, the various stations can be rotated over several days.
The teacher explains the goals of the project work in front of the assembled class and gives the children precise instructions. An activity led by an adult can become an independent activity for the children if they are familiarized with the materials and have received sufficient work instructions. Such activities are also suitable for the freely accessible "experimental corner" expand in the classroom.
The educator promotes language development by repeating the newly acquired vocabulary and the associated mental images every day. You will continue to take care that except nouns with which you can view the objects of this world "signposted", verbs that describe actions are used, as well as adjectives that provide additional information.
|nouns||Pineapple, apple, orange, avocado, banana, pear, leaf, fruit, skin, heart, core (stone), core casing, kiwi, clementine, coconut, basket, grain, litchi, mango, knife, fruit, grapefruit, juice, seed , Peel, slice, stem, piece, grape, walnut, grapes, lemon, .|
|verbs||weigh, touch, look at, observe, eat, cook, taste, smell, peel, cut, drink, weigh, draw, listen, .|
|adjectives||– Color: brown, yellow, green, orange, red, .
– Size: thick, small, long, elongated, .
– Shape: oval, round, .
– Taste: good, sour, sweet, .
– Condition: smooth, hard, soft, prickly, .
Develop a sense of hygiene, health and safety
Hygiene and health
Only the text excerpts from the preschool programs should be remembered here: "Every day the child learns to observe the basic rules of hygiene, taking into account the respective cultural habits:
- Personal hygiene: wash hands (after touching certain objects and after eating);
- Rooms: tidy up, keep clean;
- Food: regular meals, composition of meals (discover and try new dishes,.)" .
The educator advises the children of the risks that arise in their familiar surroundings:
- Dangerous objects (sharp knives, kitchen appliances, hot plates,.);
- toxic or – in certain children – allergy-causing agents / substances (household products, medicines,.);
- plants unfit for human consumption (berries, mushrooms,.);
- objects unsuitable for consumption (pearls, marbles,.);
- Choking hazard (grains and dried fruit, small fruit seeds,.);
It is important that food is prepared and eaten with the utmost care in school to avoid unnecessary risks:
- Food consumption: inquire about food allergies in children who throw away unused food on the same day,. ;
- Transport route of the food to the school: minimize the transportation time, use cool bags if necessary, pack / wrap the food to avoid contamination,. ;
- Selection of ingredients: note the expiry date, do not use opened packages,. ;
- Precautions for preparation: clean and disinfect work tables and equipment, wash hands,. ;
- Storage of food: wrap food in foil, keep cool.
In particular, the attention of educators and parents should be directed to perishable food. These foods should be prepared and stored under appropriate conditions (especially temperature conditions). Due to their composition, some dishes promote the multiplication of germs and are therefore more dangerous than others.
You should avoid as much as possible: creamy cakes, cakes with cream filling, chocolate mousse, tiramisu, chocolates filled with chocolate, "homemade" Mayonnaise (with raw eggs), etc. .
Proposals for the course of the activities
|Let us discover fruits!||Discover fruits: name, observe, compare, sort and display them.||
|Let’s compare fruits!||
|To have something
|The main competencies:
|Oral language development:
||Graphic representation and written language development:
Let us discover fruits!
- A fruit basket with bananas, apples, pears, pineapple, walnuts, litchis, oranges, grapefruits, lemons, clementines, mangoes, avocados, grapes, kiwis, a coconut, .
- a collection of drawings and / or photos of fruits
- small baskets, boxes or cans
Discover the fruit basket with the whole class
The children gathered around the teacher. This morning the teacher brought a beautifully packed basket. "What’s in that basket?" The children discover that the basket is full of different fruits: a banana, various types of apples and pears, a pineapple, walnuts, an orange, a grapefruit, a lemon and a lime, clementines, a mango, an avocado, various types of grapes, a kiwi, a coconut!
Every child expresses his impressions and feelings. It is important to take the time to collect and record these first impressions and previous knowledge. Little by little the children are asked to name the fruits. The teacher can determine which fruits are unknown to the children or which they mix up (mango / apple, mango / grapefruit, avocado / pear, clementine / orange). The teacher does not immediately give the correct answer. Later, when the children explore the fruit with their senses, they will come back to the unknown fruit and confront the children with their confusion.
Fig. 2: Sort by "relatives" fruits
sort by "relatives" fruits
The children put the fruits in different baskets, they sort them "related" Fruits and name each "family": apples (various colors), oranges, bananas, pears (various types), etc.
Try the fruits
The children now try some or all of the fruit from the basket. In smaller groups of 5 to 6 children, the fruits are prepared for consumption with the help of an adult. Researching the taste and smell expands the child’s wealth of experience, whereby he can immediately use the newly acquired experience with the next fruit. The children try each piece of fruit individually and share their impressions: sweet or sour. During the activities, the educator can always change the children’s sense of taste "form"; For example, she may suggest eating a different kind of fruit every day.
Project work: drawing and making impressions
The children draw the fruits (independent work). Then they make impressions of the fruit surface. To do this, dip the fruits in (fairly fluid) paint and roll them over a sheet of paper. You will get an impression of the fruit bowl and become aware of the different surfaces. This work promotes the development of the sense of touch (guided activity in groups of four to five children).
Create a picture collection with drawings and photos of fruits
This activity is carried out under supervision with groups of 6 to 8 children (this ensures that each child can be addressed according to their language level) and extends over the entire duration of the activities. In the first part of the project work, the children are asked to relate the (real) fruits to their illustrations. Gradually, every child should be able to:
- recognize the fruit named by the teacher ("Show me the banana, the mango.");
- recognize the image of the fruit named by the teacher ("Now show me the card with the apple, with the pear.");
- name the fruit shown by the teacher ("Tell me what this fruit is called.");
- name the fruit shown on the card ("How is called the fruit shown on this card?").
The picture collection can be created together with the children and should be freely accessible, for example as a poster on the wall. This document, which can always be reached at eye level with the children, becomes spontaneous "discussions" and "Comments" promote without requiring a request from the teacher.
Fig. 3: The picture collection
Preparation for trying the fruits
This guided activity can be done with groups of 5 to 6 children. With the support of an adult, the preparation of some or all of the fruits from the basket is prepared. It is about the development of the following skills:
- Motor skills (peel / shred): The children discover different kitchen appliances and learn to select and use the appropriate tool for every hand (peel, cut, core, stone). When chopping, the children learn about the different nature of the fruit (the mango is easier to cut than the apple);
- social skills (share / distribute on a plate);
- scientific competencies (sensory discovery / development of the sense of taste).
With fruits "Sounds" do
Various cans are filled with walnuts in independent work and these "fruit bushes" then shaken. The noises generated are compared.
In a second step, you take identical cans and fill them with different numbers of walnuts. The cans are shaken and the children are supposed to "only with the help of the ears" find the can that contains the most or the fewest nuts or only one nut. Then the can is opened and the presumption is checked. (This guided activity gradually turns into independent work.)
Let’s sort fruits!
During this activity, fruits are sorted according to different criteria. The children continue to develop their vocabulary and remember the name of the fruit.
- Image collection (book, cards)
- Fruit basket game
- a ball
- Paper of different structure and color
Re-observe the fruit with special attention to those who are often confused
With the help of the picture collection, the teacher encourages the children to use their new vocabulary and makes sure that they start to remember the names of the fruits and construct corresponding mental pictures. It comes back to the confusion revealed in the first activity: "You mixed up the apple, the mango and the grapefruit! Take a close look at these fruits, do you think they look the same? What is the same, what is different?". You can suggest that Children for Example three as "Apple" Compare labeled fruits and gives them the opportunity to identify and name the characteristics that have led to the confusion of the fruits.
Fig. 4: "Are they hard or soft?"
The children look again at the fruits: their color, size, structure, shape, weight, the presence / absence of a stem. The fruits are sniffed: "Do they all smell the same? Which fruit has an intense smell?". The fruits are touched: "Are they soft or hard? I can easily drill my finger into it?". This observation can be made by eating the three fruits, i.e. H. be supplemented by a further study of the smell and taste.
Criteria according to which the fruits should be sorted
The children should list the criteria that lead to the differentiation of the fruits: color, size (large, medium-sized, small), shape (round, elongated, thick, small), smell (smells, does not smell), structure (soft, smooth, prickly). After this joint exploration, additional activities are offered in small groups (scientific project work), taking into account the criteria just listed by the children; this should make the children aware of the relevance and scope of what they have just learned.
Summary of the sorting work
The summary of the examinations (with the whole class or in group work) during sorting can be summarized in a poster that is either created by the whole class or only by a small group.
Fig. 5: The children sorted the fruit according to their size.
Image collection (continued)
In order to memorize the children’s specific vocabulary, work on the picture collection is continued (guided activity in groups of 6 to 8 children).
Playing with the fruit basket 
The children should "fruits cards" match the fruits in the basket. This activity is gradually expanded, taking into account the level of the children, the skills to be acquired and the instructions and assistance given by the teacher. The children should:
- Recognize fruits: Name the fruit using a picture, the corresponding one "fruits card" find and place them on the fruit basket (supervised activity).
- Sort by color: One by color "order form" the fruits of this color or the corresponding ones "fruits cards" searched and placed on the fruit basket (independent work).
- Approximation to quantities / numbers:
The basket comes with "fruits cards" filled, whereby the number of cards corresponds to the number of fruits previously in the basket (independent work).
Using one "order form", on which a certain number of fruits (e.g. five apples, three pears, two mangoes) is depicted "ordered" Fruits in the form of "fruits cards" placed on the fruit basket (this guided activity gradually turns into independent work).
Presentation of the fruits (drawings)
This activity takes place under instruction in groups of 6 to 8 children. The fruits are to be drawn: First the appropriate color is selected, then the outline of the fruit placed on the sheet of paper is sketched out (in this way the size and shape of the fruit are accurately reproduced) and finally the special characteristics of the fruit (stem, spots, etc .) closely observed. The teacher can also write down the children’s comments on the drawings ("That is the stem of the apple").
Sort fruits by color (see)
The fruits of the same color are put together in groups and each group is provided with a label in the appropriate color (orange, green, yellow, brown, red). The educator uses this sorting process to ask the children about the name and color of the respective fruit.
Sort the fruits by structure (see / touch)
The children take the fruit in their hands, stroke it on the palm and cheek to better understand terms such as furry, rough, prickly, smooth, etc. The fruits are then classified into two categories: "smooth" and "not smooth", a placeholder can be used for the respective category (e.g. sandpaper and a piece of velvet or satin).
In addition, one can "tactile domino game" Manufacture from materials of different quality / structure.
Sort the fruits by smell (smell)
The fruits are according to the criterion "does not smell or smell?" sorted, either blindfolded (if the children allow it) or with the help of "odor doses", which were made from shoeboxes with small holes in the lid. Through the holes, the smell of the (whole or cut) fruit (or the peel of the citrus fruit) "escape", without seeing the fruits (parts).
Fig. 6 and 7: Playing with the fruit basket and drawing the observed fruit
The teacher can deepen this first sorting process, for example when trying the fruits, by repeating so that the children can "specific" Note the smell of certain very characteristic fruits (e.g. orange, banana, clementine,.).
Sorting the fruits by shape (sight / touch)
Compare the shape of each fruit with a small ball: "Rolls the fruit like a ball or not?". This first classification can be expanded by a comparison with geometric shapes.
Sort the fruit by size (see / touch)
The fruits "from the smallest to the largest" Sort the fruit. Then, for example, measuring tools for measuring the length (paper strips, string, ruler) can be discovered.
Sorting the fruit by weight (sight / touch)
fruit "from the lightest to the hardest" Sort the fruit. Here the children can experiment with scales (different models) to determine the weight.
Let’s compare fruits!
In this activity, the sliced fruit is examined more closely. The children also watch how cooking changes the fruit. You discover a written instruction: the cooking recipe. After this activity, each child should be able to:
- identify, name, compare and display the sliced fruit by observation;
- establish a connection between whole and cut fruit;
- compare raw and cooked fruit;
- compile and compare the fruits according to certain criteria;
- To put pictures in the right order;
- to choose the right tool for a particular handle.
- Fruit (including apples)
- Knife (with rounded tip)
- Potato peeler, stoner, cookie cutter
- Forks, spoons
- applesauce recipe
- Image collection (book, cards)
- Fruit basket game
Observation of the inside of the fruit
"We looked at the fruits from the outside. Now let’s see how all these fruits look inside! What do you think we will see in it??"
The children describe the inside of the fruits they know and imagine the inside of the other fruits. These are then cut open and the assumptions checked. The children observe the different appearance of the inside of the fruit and verbally formulate what they see, smell and feel (soft pulp for mango and litchis, hard pulp for apple and coconut, kernels, kernels or stones, slits for citrus fruits.). When opening the coconut with the hammer (used by the teacher), the children can test its strength and discover the coconut water.
Fig. 8: The inside of the coconut
Back to eating the raw fruits
The educator continues with the work that she does as part of the projects ("Preparation for eating the fruits", supervised activity in groups of 6 to 8 children) and while trying the fruits together (guided activity with the entire class). Each child is given a plate of pieces of fruit that must be recognized before they are eaten. For this purpose, the children use the knowledge acquired about the properties of fruits and use their senses (color, smell, appearance and structure of the pulp).
"Can you eat the skin of all fruits? How can you remove the bowl when you don’t want to or can’t eat it? Which device can you use for peeling? Can you eat the fruits whole? How can you cut them? With which tool? The fruits all taste the same?".
As an additional project, a fruit salad can be prepared, for example.
Comparison of raw and cooked fruit
One day is devoted to the preparation of applesauce (discovery of the recipe, preparation, cooking, consumption). The educator hangs out the apple sauce recipe, which is now shared by the entire class "discovered" becomes.
Fig. 9: The apple sauce recipe
The children should say what the text is about and make suggestions for the preparation process ("What do we do first?"). They describe the drawings and put the required actions into words ("How to do it?"). Then make a list of the required ingredients and equipment ("What do you need?").
The apple sauce is prepared under instruction, either with the whole class (process apples and add other ingredients) or in small groups (cook, stir).
These activities give the children the opportunity to explore the world of matter (cutting, decanting, mixing), they observe how matter changes as a result of the cooking process (raw fruit, cooked fruit), but will also be aware of the risks in their environment conscious (safety education).
Eating the finished applesauce together is a moment of shared joy, in which the differences between raw and cooked fruit can be rediscovered (structure, taste, smell, color). It is also the opportunity to learn basic hygiene rules (hand washing, table cleanliness).
Playing with the fruit basket (continued)
With the help of this game, the card with the cut fruit is assigned to the card with the whole fruit; both cards are then placed in the fruit basket.
The children should independently use the knowledge they have acquired in the linguistic and scientific fields. With the help of a "order form", on which the different terms discussed in the course of the previous hours occur (color, quantity, size, nature), the children should find the fruit cards that the "orders" and place them on the fruit basket (independent work).
One child places the order orally, another carries it out, the first child checks the work of the second. Then the roles are changed (independent work in groups of two).
Draw the sliced fruit and make impressions
Choose a color, draw the outline of the fruit lying on a sheet of paper in order to be able to determine its shape and size precisely, observe the characteristics of the inside of the fruit (kernels, kernels / stones, columns,.). The teacher can also write down the comments made by the children on the drawings: "That is the core of the mango" (supervised activity in groups of 6 to 8 children).
Make impressions of the fruit with plaster. The imprints should then be used to recognize the fruit (guided activity in groups of 4 to 5 children).
Preparation and tasting of applesauce
The teacher peels the apples in advance so that they only have to cut them (with a knife with a rounded tip), core them, put them in a saucepan and add the ingredients (water, sugar) (guided work with the entire class ).
Fig. 10: Drawings of cut fruit
The children make assumptions about what will happen when cooking. They then observe in small groups, in the presence of an adult, what is actually happening (heat development, bubbles on the surface, color and texture of the apples). They discuss the dangers associated with cooking (guided activity in groups of 4 to 5 children).
The children fiddle with the different kitchen utensils (mashed potatoes, forks, spoons, knives with rounded tips) to crush the apple pieces or remove individual pieces and to stir the applesauce and stir until smooth.
The children learn little by little, by trying and copying, the functioning of each kitchen appliance and the associated handles. The teacher asks the children which device is best for crushing the cooked apples – it is better with a fork than with a spoon, but with a potato masher it works best (guided activity in groups of 6 to 8 children).
The children talk about the nature and taste of the compote. This activity can now be expanded by comparing the consumption of cooked and raw apples or homemade and industrially produced applesauce (guided activity with the whole class).
Fig. 11: Cut apples, add sugar and mash the cooked apples.
What did we remember??
The linguistic knowledge that the children have acquired in the course of these activities through the exploration of the senses must be regularly refreshed over a longer period of time in order to ensure that this new vocabulary remains firmly anchored. The teacher has several options for these repetitions:
- Everyday situations (snacks or birthday parties for which new and well-known fruits are brought along. The fruits can be cut fresh or served as a fruit salad, jam or compote).
- A made during the year "fruit Calendar" with the fruits occurring in the different seasons.
- Events like that "Week of taste" [takes place in Europe every year in October].
- The production of fruit juices (for additional activities see the "The hand, the gesture, the technical object").
- The establishment of a school garden or a small plant corner in the classroom (for additional activities see "Plant, sow – harvest thoughts").
Worksheets allow the educator to evaluate the knowledge acquired by the children.
Fig.12a: Independent work (left): "I can find the card with the cut fruit and stick it on the sheet next to the picture with the whole fruit".
Guided work (center): "I can recognize the fruits that are called me and name the fruits that I am shown".
Independent work (right): "I can read the order card" and "I can fill the basket according to the order card".
Tables with the knowledge of the entire class
These tables are created together and hung in the classroom at eye level and reach of the children. This spurs the children to spontaneous discussions and comments. Situations arise in which the linguistic and scientific knowledge acquired in the course of these activities is used again.
Fig. 13: Activity with the entire class: "I can relate the whole fruit, the name of the fruit, the cut fruit and the inside of the fruit."
Games made in the course of these activities
These games, which were created together with the children, are freely accessible in the "Science Corner" of the classroom.
Fig. 14: Fruit basket: "I can name the fruits that I put in the basket".
Dominoes: "I can link the sliced one with the whole fruit".
Lotto: "I can link two identical pictures together".
Memory: "I can remember the place of the fruit in pairs".
For the kids
- The five senses. See, hear, smell, feel, taste. Charlotte Roederer, Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim, 2002
- Experiments for all the senses. Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, body awareness. Hermann Krekeler, Ravensburger, 2004
- My first picture knowledge. My five senses. Imrgard Paule, Arena, 2005
- Feel what you see. The interactive book of the senses. Dagmar Binder, Maria Blazejovsky, Sauerländer, 2007
- Hear, see, smell with the mouse, Ina Steinmetz, Sophie von Lenthe, Ravensburger, 2002
- The great book of the senses. See, hear, taste, smell, feel. Gerit Kopietz, Jörg Sommer, Helmut Kollars, Betz, Vienna, 2002
- The sensory workshop. Exciting experiments with eyes, hands and ears. Ulrike Berger, Oz Verlag, 2005
- Look how it works! The listening workshop. Exciting experiments with sounds and noises. Ulrike Berger, Oz Verlag, 2004
- We discover our senses. The non-fiction series from kindergarten age. Angela Weinhold, Ravensburger, 2005
- Can you hear the gentle caressing wind? Stories and games for all the senses. Maja von Vogel, Vanessa Paulzen, Loewe Verlag, 2004
- My first picture knowledge. My five senses. Anette Hildebrandt, Edition Book Bear, 2005
CD’s, DVD’s, games and computer games
- PC game: Milli-Metha: My body. Tivola
- PC game: The little professor discovers the body. Friedrich Oetinger.
- Research box: Dandelions – The 5 senses. Cosmos 605117.
- CD: soundtrack game sounds. Hear – recognize – imitate. (Learning materials), Carola Preuß, Klaus Ruge, Verlag An der Ruhr, 2003
- CD: Everyday noises as a guide. Carola Preuss, Klaus Ruge, Verlag An der Ruhr, 1997
For the educators
- The development of the senses. Promotion of perception in kindergarten. Ylva Ellneby, Lambertus Verlag, 1998
- Manual of sensory perception. Foundations of holistic education and upbringing. Renate Zimmer, Herder, 2006
- Experience the world with all your senses. Wunderfitz workbook to promote perception. Renate Zimmer, Herder, 2004
- My body: All senses (learning materials), Stefanie Brennholt, Katrin Klaubert, Cornelsen, 1998
- Sinn Salabim. Keys – hearing – seeing: experience games for children (learning materials). Liselotte Ackermann, Renate Urfer, Bernhard Müller, Verlag An der Ruhr, 2005
- See, hear, taste. Discover all the senses with children. Regina Bestle-Körfer, Annemarie Stollenwerk, Regina Bestle-Körfer, Christophorus-Verlag, 2005
- Children’s games for all the senses. See, hear, smell, taste, touch. Elke Müller-Mees, Urania, Stuttgart, 2003
- From the sense of the senses. Playful promotion of perception for children, Wolfgang Löscher, Don Bosco Verlag, 1994
CD’s and DVD’s
- Our ears, book and audio training audio CD (with noise CD). Susanne Dannhorn, Verlag An der Ruhr, 2007
- The human body, part 5. Hear, see, smell, touch. Complete media, 2003
1: Project activities are activities that are carried out independently or in small groups.
4: The teacher creates the game with the fruit basket, in which fruit cards can be placed on a basket. To attach the fruit cards to the basket, you can use Velcro, for example, which is attached to the basket and on the back of the cards.
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