Large blood count, blood test, fasting, values, laboratory values, pregnancy

Blood tests include a complete blood count with a differential blood count (or hemogram) that shows the cell elements in the blood:

  • Red blood cells,
  • White blood cells,
  • Platelets (platelets).

You do not have to be fasting before a complete blood count, but it is necessary for other blood analyzes (especially when testing your blood sugar).

The laboratories differ somewhat in the interpretation of the results, so that the absolute value of these numbers must not be taken into account.

Here is a list of the positions that the doctor interprets using the reference values:

Number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the large blood count

Normal values: from 4 to 10 cells / µl

The white blood cells help fight infections. Therefore, an increase in the number of white blood cells can be useful for the detection of an infection. But it can also indicate leukemia, which can cause an increase in the number of white blood cells.
On the other hand, white blood cell deficiency can be caused by certain medications or diseases.

Which leads to a low white blood cell count?

  • Bone marrow diseases
  • chemotherapy
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • viral infections

Which leads to an increased leukocyte count?

  • infections
  • inflammation
  • cancer
  • leukemia
  • Intensive training
  • stress
  • corticosteroids

Differential blood count

The differential blood count gives that cellular composition of white blood cells (leukocytes) of blood.

  • neutrophils 40% to 60% of the total
  • lymphocytes 20% to 40%
  • monocytes 2% to 8%
  • eosinophils 1 to 4%
  • basophils 0.5% to 1%

This investigation measures:

The differentiated leukocyte count also shows whether the number of different cells are in the correct relationship to each other.
An anomaly in this investigation could indicate:

  • infection,
  • inflammation,
  • Autoimmune disease,
  • anemia,
  • Other diseases.

Decreased neutrophil values ​​in the large blood count

The neutrophils are the most numerous white blood cells in the blood.
These cells have the task of protecting the body from infections.

Causes of low neutrophil counts

Some ethnic groups have a lower neutrophil count than average:

  • African
  • African-American
  • Yemeni Jews
  • Jordanian Arabs

Congenital neutropenia

  • Cyclic neutropenia
  • Severe congenital neutropenia or Kostmann syndrome

Blood and bone marrow disorders

Medicines and toxic substances

  • chemotherapy
  • Antibiotics and diuretics
  • alcohol
  • radiotherapy
  • Insecticides

infection causes

organ changes

  • Enlargement of the spleen, a premature destruction of blood cells in the spleen

Autoimmune diseases

  • Hyperthyroidism (Graves’ disease)
  • lupus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis

nutrient deficiency

Symptoms of severe neutropenia (

Typical symptoms and Diseases, that occur in patients with severe neutropenia are:

  1. fever
  2. Pneumonia
  3. Inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis)
  4. Middle ear infection (otitis media)
  5. Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis)
  6. Inflammation of the navel (omphalitis)
  7. skin abscesses

Severe congenital neutropenia can be accompanied by severe symptoms.

Increased neutrophil levels
An increase in the number of neutrophils can be caused by the following:

Number of erythrocytes (red blood cells)

Normal values: from 4.2 to 5.9 million / µl
Millions of red blood cells are present in the body. This test measures the number of red blood cells in a certain amount of blood. This value:

  • helps determine the total number of red blood cells,
  • gives an idea of ​​their lifespan,
  • says nothing about where the problems come from.

If there are any abnormalities, the prescribes doctor other investigations.

What does the erythrocyte count mean?
The red blood cells bind the oxygen from the blood and transport it to the tissues of the whole body.
Normal results

Why is the number of red blood cells low??

  • Lack of iron
  • Lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid
  • Anemia due to insufficient production of red blood cells due to bone marrow disorders
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Blood loss due to wounds, internal injuries, or heavy menstrual flow
  • chemotherapy

Why is the number of red blood cells increased??

Hematocrit (Hct) values ​​in blood analysis

  • 42% to 52% for men
  • 37 to 48% for women

Hematocrit is the relationship between:

  • Red blood cell volume (erythrocytes)
  • and volume of blood plasma

What is the hematocrit?
This examination is used to diagnose anemia and determine what proportion of the total volume of blood in the body is made up of red blood cells (the percentage of red blood cells in the blood).

Causes of decreased and increased hematocrit
The causes of low hematocrit are the same as those for high red blood cells and are listed in the previous paragraph.

A high hematocrit can also occur as a result of doping, known as erythropoietin (EPO), a substance found in the human body that stimulates the production of red blood cells.

Hemoglobin (Hb) values ​​in the large blood count

  • 14-18 g / dl for men
  • 12-16 g / dl for women

The red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which gives the blood the strong red color. More importantly, the hemoglobin transports the oxygen from the lungs to the whole body and then the carbon dioxide to the lungs, where it is exhaled.
Hemoglobin levels in healthy people vary by gender. Low hemoglobin levels can indicate anemia.

What is hemoglobin?
It is a colored substance that transports oxygen in the red blood cells.

What does decreased or increased hemoglobin mean??
The disorders that result in low hemoglobin levels are the same as those that cause low red blood cell levels.

Average red blood cell volume (MCV) in the large blood count

Normal values: from 82 to 97 femtoliters
This test measures the mean volume of the red blood cells or the mean amount of space that each red blood cell occupies.
An anomaly could indicate:

What does the MCV mean??
This value shows the average size of the red blood cells.

What does a lowered MCV mean??

  • iron deficiency
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Anemia from renal failure
  • Chronic diseases

What does an increased MCV mean??

  • Lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Aplastic anemia

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)

Normal values: 27-31 picograms

What does the MCH mean??
This test measures the average amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Very high results could indicate anemia, while too low values ​​could indicate a lack of nutrition.

What does a lowered MCH mean??
iron deficiency

What does an elevated MCH mean??
As for the mean cell volume of red blood cells, there may also be a lack of vitamin B12 or folic acid.

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Normal values: 32-36%
The examination of the MCHC describes the mean concentration of hemoglobin in a certain number of red blood cells. Concentration measures the ratio between the weight of hemoglobin and the volume of the red blood cell in which it is contained.
This indicates anemia if the number is low or dehydration if the number is high.

Red cell distribution width (EVB)
Normal values: 11.5-15.5%
If the percentage is high, it means that the majority of red blood cells are of different sizes.
If the value is low, it means that most red blood cells are the same size.
A high EVB value is a possible indication of:

  • Lack of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia or sickle cell anemia
  • chemotherapy
  • Chronic liver disease

Number of platelets in the blood count

Normal values: from 150,000 to 400,000 ml
Platelets are small components of the blood that help the blood to clot.
Too many or too few platelets can affect clotting in different ways.
The number of platelets can also indicate an illness.

What does the platelet count mean?
Platelets are cells that are used to close skin injuries and prevent blood loss.

What do decreased platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) mean??

What do high platelet counts mean?

  • leukemia
  • Myeloproliferative diseases (which leads to abnormal growth of blood cells in the bone marrow)
  • Chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine (Crohn’s disease)

Mean platelet volume (MTV)
Normal values: from 7.4 to 10.4 femtoliters
This investigation measures the average size of platelets.

A higher value means that the platelets are larger, which is a risk factor for:

A lower value indicates smaller blood platelets and means that the patient is at risk of bleeding.

UCS values ​​in the large blood count

The UCS or blood cell lowering rate is an examination of the blood that can reveal inflammation in the body.
A UCS examination alone does not do much, but it can help the doctor to diagnose an inflammatory disease or to follow its course.

When the blood is drawn, it is filled into a tall and narrow pipette, the red blood cells (erythrocytes) gradually sink to the bottom.
The UCS is the unit of speed at which the red blood cells sink.
Inflammation can cause an accumulation of red blood cells, which quickly decrease.

Normal values ​​(Westergren method):

  • Men under 50 years: less than 15 mm / h
  • Men over 50 years: less than 20 mm / h
  • Women under 50 years: less than 20 mm / h
  • Women over 50 years: less than 30 mm / h
  • Newborns: 0 to 2 mm / h
  • Infants until puberty: 3 to 13 mm / h

There may be an increased UCS in:

  • anemia
  • Tumors such as lymphoma or multiple myeloma
  • kidney disease
  • pregnancy
  • thyroid disease

The most common autoimmune diseases include:

  1. Lupus erythematosus
  2. Rheumatoid arthritis in adults and children

A greatly increased UCS can occur in diseases such as:

  1. Allergic vasculitis
  2. giant
  3. Hyperfibrinogenemia (increased fibrinogen in the blood)
  4. Primary macroglobulinemia
  5. Necrotizing vasculitis
  6. Polymyalgia rheumatica

A high UCS can occur with some infections, including:

  1. Systemic infections
  2. bone infections
  3. Infection of the heart (endocarditis) or the heart valves
  4. Rheumatic fever
  5. tuberculosis
  6. encephalitis

Peripheral blood smears
Peripheral smears can also be taken during blood analysis, an examination that provides information about the number and shape of blood cells.
They are done to rule out possible abnormalities in red blood cells and platelets with regard to:


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Christina Cherry
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