Implant material, implant design and implant surface
The long-term success of implant therapy is determined by various factors. In addition to the personal situation of the patient (bone supply, bone density of the implant bed), the implant material, the implant design and the implant surface play an important role in the success of an implant treatment.
Titanium is considered the standard in implantology today.
Innovative high-performance materials are regarded as trend-setting, for example, the material Roxolid®, which is composed of titanium and zirconium, is characterized by a significantly higher strength.
Tooth-colored ceramic implants
Ceramic implants made of high-performance zirconia (Y-TZP) are now available for immunologically stressed patients.
For all implants, the implant body replaces the original tooth root. In the case of endosseous implants (anchored in the bone), the implant body is usually cylindrical and is anchored directly in the jawbone via a thread. After healing, the implant forms the foundation for the new teeth, the so-called superstructure. Endosseous dental implants sit firmly in the jawbone like a true tooth root after their osseointegration (healing).
Implant-supported teeth feel and look natural. They are hardly distinguishable from natural teeth. Crowns can be attached to the implants, bridges can be attached to multiple missing teeth or removable or firmly anchored full dentures for edentulousness.
History of implants
The idea of oral implantology has a long history. Centuries before Christ, the Etruscans and Egyptians were already trying to replace lost teeth with bones that they carved into teeth or replaced with animal teeth. This first denture was attached to the neighboring teeth with gold wires.
However, the real breakthrough in implantology did not take place until the 20th century. The scientifically fundamental work for the development of a dental implant was operated in the 50s and 60s by two professors. Their discovery that the human body not only tolerates titanium but even connects it to living bone tissue has revolutionized dental implantology. Their findings on long-term stability have contributed significantly to the success and development of dental implants.
Pioneers of modern implantology
In Sweden, the foundation for today’s dental implantology was laid by Professor Per Ingvar Brånemark and in Switzerland by Prof. Reinhard Straumann. They are considered the pioneers of modern implantology, revolutionized dentistry and became the pioneers of dental implantology.
Their implants are still used in modified form and are among the best scientifically documented implant systems. There are international, scientifically founded findings and decades of experience with titanium implants. Implantology has become one of the best documented treatments in the world.
The Swedish Prof. Per-Ingvar Brånemark discovered in 1952 at the University of Lund that titanium and human bone can make a strong connection. Professor Per Ingvar Brånemark set the first implants in 1965. He described the process of attaching the bone to the implant as osseointegration.
As Metallurg has Prof. Reinhard Straumann created the scientific basis for the incorporation of metals in bone. He developed titanium dental implants for Prof. Dr. med. Andre Schroeder from the University of Bern was one of the first scientists to examine the healing of dental implants. Straumann introduced the world’s first single-barreled hollow cylinder implants in 1974, followed in 1976 by a helical tooth implant made of pure titanium.
One-piece, transgingival-healing implants consist of only one component. The intraosseous and the prosthetic implant area are integrated into the implant and form a unit. The depth when placing the implant is defined by the so-called prosthetic level. After implantation, the implant protrudes out of the mucous membrane. The exposure surgery for the integration of the dental prosthesis is omitted with this implant.
The development of two-part implants and the closed, subgingival healing (under the mucous membrane) was promoted by Prof. Per-Ingvar Brånemark. He subdivided the implant structure into an intraosseous part, the implant and a prosthetic part, the spacer sleeve. The implant is placed on a bone base and is covered by the mucosa. This should ensure a safe osseointegration of the implant. The implant should heal under the mucous membrane free from mechanical stress and bacterial colonization. After healing, the exposure of the implant and the subsequent prosthetic restoration with spacer sleeve, also called abutment and the structure of the new tooth.
In implantology, round screw implants, so-called rotationally symmetric implants have prevailed. Meanwhile, there are a variety of implant designs, which differ mainly by their conical shape, surface coating, material and type of thread. With the helical implants and their special threads, an implant with the necessary primary stability can be anchored in the bone.
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