Country info: peru – robinson in the net

Country Info: Peru

Peru – interesting information for children from 3.-6. School year about country people, about Machu Picchu, child labor, the Nazca Lines, the Incas and more.


The Coast (Costa) takes about one tenth of the land area. It consists mainly of desert.

Behind the narrow coastal region begin the Andes (Sierra). You are the longest mountain range in the world and move throughout South America.

Of the Rainforest (Selva) covers more than half of the country. Agriculture is possible only along the rivers that come from the Andes.

In southern Peru, on the border with Chile, is the Atacama Desert. That is the driest desert on earth.

Of the highest mountain is the Huascarán (6,768 meters): He is the fourth highest mountain in South America.


Around Peru live 31 million people (in Germany 81 million).

  • Almost half of the inhabitants are indígenas, Descendants of the indigenous people.
  • Approximately Every 3rd is a mestizo (one parent is an indigenous person, the other a white man).
  • Besides, still live white,black, Japanese and Chinese in Peru.

In Peru, there are many more younger than older people:

Older Peru Germany
0-14 years 26 out of every 100 people 13 out of every 100 people
15 – 64 years 66 out of every 100 people 65 out of every 100 people
older 8 out of every 100 people 22 out of every 100 people

Source: World Factbook 2018


Lima is the Capital Peru. There live almost 10.3 million people. Lima is at the same time too the largest city of the country. There are many universities, colleges, museums and monuments here. UNESCO declared the old town of Lima in 1991 to be “World Heritage“Explains – that means that the buildings are so significant and beautiful that they absolutely must be preserved. There is a railroad through Lima – it is the second highest railway line of the world.

Lima has grown over the years with the port city of Callao and the former fishing villages on the Pacific coast. In addition, it originated on the dry soils on the outskirts of the city big slums. They are called “Pueblos Jovenes” – “young villages”. There live more than half of the people in Lima.

In Lima, it is average throughout the year 18.2 degrees Celsius warm. It rarely rains. In winter (June to September), the city is practically all morning, and often the rest of the day, under thick fog.

Source: World Factbook 2018

Peru from A to W


Peru employs 100 people each

  • 57 in the service industry – eg. In hotels, restaurants, shops, laundries or as a craftsman
  • 26 in agriculture
  • 17 in the industry

In Germany, each work of 100 people

  • 74 in the service industry
  • 25 in the industry
  • 2 in agriculture

Source: World Factbook, latest number from 2011

That deserves a primary school teacher a saleswoman a car mechanic
in Lima 8200 5750 7800
in Berlin 49,800 21,800 28,800
How many minutes does anyone have to work to … buy 1 Big Mac 1 kg of bread 1 kg of rice
in Lima 38 45 15
in Berlin 13 9 13

Source: Prices and Wages 2015

Chan Chan

The city was built around the year 1300 and still extends over an area of ​​28 km ². She was probably the one largest city of the time in South America. She is one of the largest cities in the world built of clay.

The Incas tried to take the city. They did not succeed with their soldiers, so they resorted to a trick: they simply diverted the river that flows through the city. As a result, the inhabitants had no more water, and the Incas were able to bring the city under their rule.

The Incas did not destroy the city, but the Spanish conquerors (-> see history). Today, only huge areas with clay buildings are in more or less poor condition and some ballrooms can be seen.
Chan Chan belongs to World Heritage Site, that is, it is considered significant and worthy of protection.


The city lies at 3,360 m altitude and was the long ago the Capital of the Incas. The word Cusco (Qusqu) comes from the Quechua language and means “Navel of the world”. You can visit numerous ruins of the Inca Empire, z. B. the sun temple Coricancha.

In 1911, near Cusco on a mountain was the hidden city Machu Picchu discovered. As a result, Cusco became the largest tourist center in Peru. 1650, the city was by a earthquake destroyed. Only the foundations of palaces and temples built by the Incas remained intact. Another earthquake in 1950 destroyed the rebuilt churches and houses. Cuzco was destroyed to 90%. The preserved Inca ruins and the city center with its old buildings from the time of the Spanish conquerors were in 1983 to the World Heritage Site explained.


Ceviche is one of the best known national dishes in Peru. This is a cold dish of raw pieces of fish that are put into lime juice, chili and onions.

By the way, in Peru belong Guinea pig to livestock, as in Germany, for example, pigs or cattle. That’s why they are eaten there.

  • A Peruvian recipe: Panéton

The money in Peru means Nuevo Sol:

1 sol = 0.27 euros
1 Euro = 3,70 Sol

As of May 2019, Oanda Currency Converter


20,000 to 10,000 BC Chr. The first immigrants come to Peru.
In the year 1200 AD. that arises Kingdom of the Incas. It covers large parts of today’s states Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. The City Cusco is the capital of this empire.
In the years 1526 to 1528 The Spaniard Francisco Pizarro González manages to reach the Peruvian coast with his ships. 1531 He leads another expedition to Peru. At the 15:11.1532 He arrives with Spanish soldiers at the Peruvian city of Cajamarca. His troops murder the unarmed Incas. Peru becomes Spanish viceroyalty. On 15.11.1533 Pizarro reaches the capital Cusco. He melts almost all gold and silver and tears down temples and palaces, only a few walls remain.
1535 Pizarro founds the city of Lima. 1650 Cusco is destroyed by an earthquake.
The Chilean government wants to liberate Peru from Spanish rule. she sends 1820 an Argentine-Chilean conquering expedition. 1821 becomes Peru independent of Spain.
The organization “Sendero Luminoso” (shining path) starts an armed fight against the government, which lasts until the 90s.
1990 becomes Alberto Fujimori President. He rules by intimidating people.
2000 Fujimori tries to come to power by electoral fraud. He is deposed and flees to Japan.
Since March 2018 Martín Vizcarra Peruvian President.


In the cities have 9 out of 100 people no clean drinking water, in the country, however 31 out of 100 no way to drink clean water. The fact that people have to drink dirty water, that there are no toilets, no way to wash their hands, and that sewage simply flows across the street, is that Main causes of stomach and intestinal diseases.
If someone gets sick in the countryside, it is difficult for him to go to the doctor: The next doctor’s office is often far away, there are no buses that go there or people have no money for a ticket.
Many children suffer from anemia, respiratory problems and diarrhea.

Source: World Factbook 2015

Child labor

Out of 100 children, 22 have to work in Peru to support their family.

Especially in Lima many children work as shoeshine boy, messenger, car washer, newspaper or lottery ticket seller, to contribute to the family’s livelihood.

Source: United Nations, latest number of 2015

  • Daily routine of a child laborer in a brickyard

Kindernothilfe in Peru

We have been active in Peru since 1984 and currently support in 7 projects around 7,410 children. We particularly support with our partners Children who need to work, because their families are poor. We help them find light jobs that do not harm their health and get a fair pay for it. If they earn enough money, they can go back to school, which is very important for their future.

That children are beaten, is unfortunately normal in Peru. In our projects, these children get help, the parents, we clarify how they can educate their children without blows.

Special support programs exist for Children with disabilities. The families of these children as well as neighbors, friends and entire villages / neighborhoods are included in these programs so that all people learn to accept the girls and boys and not treat them as outcasts.

country name

His name was given to Peru from the Spanish conquerors (please refer “history“). The origin of the name is not clear: maybe it comes from one Leader of an indigenous people, the Peru was called. From him, the Spaniards learned for the first time of a fabled gold country in the south. Another theory claims that the name of the Word “pelu” – “water” dates.

Life expectancy

In Peru, people are getting average 74 years old (in Germany 81 years).

Source: World Factbook 2018

Machu Picchu

This is a well preserved ruined city of the Inca. It is 2,360 m high on a hilltop near the town of Cusco. The city used to have 216 stone buildings connected by stairs. Approximately 3,000 steps You can still see today, as well as the outer walls of some multi-storey houses. On July 24, 1911, the ruins were taken by an expedition from Yale University rediscovered by accident. They were completely overgrown with plants. UNESCO included Machu Picchu in 1983 in the list of World Heritage on. In 2007, Machu Picchu became one of the world’s 70 million people “New seven wonders of the world chosen.

national anthem

“Somos libres, seámoslo siempre” is the name of the Peruvian national anthem – “We are free, may we always be it”.

The refrain is:
We are free, as we always are, and may the sun go down rather than break the solemn vow that our Fatherland has made before the Eternal.

Nazca Lines

These are huge drawings in the desert near the places Nazca and Palpa. On 500 km² you will find dead straight lines, which are up to 20 kilometers long. There are z. B. triangles and figures that are up to several hundred meters long: People, monkeys, a lizard, a hummingbird, a spider – and something, that looks like an astronaut! That with the astronaut is so amazing, because the drawings in the period between 600 BC. Chr. And 100 v. Chr. Chr. Should have originated. Because the structures are so huge, they can only be seen from above from an airplane see. There are many theories of who made them and why. But until today, the scientists can not agree, who is right.


Of every 100 inhabitants are:

60 Roman Catholic

15 Members of other Christian groups

25 Members of other religious communities
or not religious

Source: World Factbook (latest number from 2017)


There is one in Peru compulsory school attendance – that is, children between 7 and 16 must go to school. The primary school lasts 6 years and is free. After elementary school, the children can go to the secondary go, which takes 5 years.
A big problem for the Indígena children is the Language of instruction Spanish; for them it is a foreign language that they first have to learn. That’s why the government has set up two-year pre-schools. But there is not enough classrooms and not well educated teachers, especially in rural areas. Of every 100 people, 94 can read and write.

Sources: United Nations 2008-2012, Kindernothilfe, World Factbook 2016


The official language is Spanish, the language of whites and mestizos. Another official language is quechua (pronounced Kéchua), a language of Inígenas.

Source: The World Factbook 2017

Lake Titicaca

That’s the largest lake in South America; With an area of ​​8,288 square kilometers, it is about 15 times the size of Lake Constance. The western part of the lake belongs to Peru, the eastern part to Bolivia. More than 25 rivers flow into Lake Titicaca. Only one river flows out again: the Río Desaguadero. With him about a tenth of the excess water flows back out of the lake. The remaining water evaporates.

Lake Titicaca is that highest waters of the earth, driving on the ships. Today, about 1,600 Quechua, descendants of the indigenous people, live on Peru’s Taquile Island. They were discovered late on the 5.5 km long and 1.6 km wide island – they had always hidden when strangers came to the island. The islanders are famous today for their knitting men. The island is therefore also loving “Island of knitting men” called.

time of day

If in Germany 12 noon it is six hours earlier in Peru, that is 6 o’clock in the morning. During the daylight saving time the difference is seven hours.

environmental pollution

La Oroya in Peru is one of the dirtiest cities in the world. There are many blast furnaces in the city. From huge chimneys poisonous smoke rises. They throw 850 tons of sulfur dioxide into the air every day. Sulfur dioxide is a poisonous gas that causes acid rain and severely damages the environment.

Abigail, Maria and Abraham no longer want to accept this. You are involved with a Kindernothilfe partner against the pollution in their homeland. That’s not easy, because factories owned by US company Doe Run are the largest employer in the region.

  • Here you can read the whole story: Young people fight against environmental crimes in La Oroya (PDF)


(With this link you leave the Robinson-in-the-web-website and we are not responsible for the content of the linked site.)


Although only a small area is suitable for growing there, more than a third of the inhabitants still live on agriculture. They build above all else sugarcane, potatoes, Corn, Rice, cotton, coffee and poppy, often on the barren soils of the steep slopes.

An important role plays the Mining. Industry and trade focus on the capital Lima and its surroundings. Peru is mainly involved Copper, zinc, silver, Fishmeal and textiles.

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